Keywords: pomegranate, juice, ORAC, anthocyanins, antioxidant, polyphenols, cultivars juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. Around 92% of pomegranate antioxidant activity comes from The total phenolic content of pomegranate juice was determined using the .. megranate Juice and Its Relationship with Phenolic Composition and Processing. This study investigated the antioxidant capacity by the scavenging activity capacity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and .
Namdar Abstract This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay FRAP assaywhich is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively.
The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars. How to cite this article: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, To protect possible oxidative damage to biological molecules, lipids, proteins and especially deoxyribo nucleic acids DNAall oxygen-consuming organisms are endowed with a well-integrated antioxidant system.
This antioxidant system includes enzymatic and non-enzymatic components. The superoxide dismutaseglutathione peroxidase and catalase are the major antioxidant enzymes frequently mentioned in the literature Fang et al.
Fruits can be rich sources of various vitamins, minerals and fibers required by human body for optimal health. In the recent years, more attention has been paid to the antioxidants contained in fruits.
Epidemiological studies have shown that high fruit intake can be associated with reduced mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer.
One possible mechanism is attributed to the antioxidant activity Lampe, ; Guo and Yang, Other antioxidants include phenolic compounds which have been identified as important antioxidants found in fruits. Some of these compounds have been shown to have even more antioxidant activity than vitamin C and E in vitro and significant bioavailability has been demonstrated by animal and human studies Bravo, ; Rice-Evans et al.
Fruits are diverse in antioxidant composition and those with high antioxidant activity generally contain more antioxidants Guo et al. Pomegranate Punica granatum L. There are reports of the use of pomegranate as antiviral Neurath et al. The pomegranate juice consumption has also shown to be effective for coronary heart disease Fuhrman et al.
The presence of antioxidants has been reported from pomegranate in juice, peel, pulp and seed fractions Guo et al. Iran is a native land of the pomegranate which is grown in every region, both coastal and mountainous areas.
No literature, to date, was found reporting the antioxidant activity of the Persian pomegranate in Iran and little attention has been paid to its health promoting values. Based on numerous evidences about the increase in oxidative stress related diseases in Iran and the scarcity of data of the antioxidant content in foods, the aim of the current study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of pomegranate. If shown to be a valuable source of antioxidants, various food industries can explore the possibility of developing a nutritional agent rich in natural antioxidants from the pomegranate.
All solvents and chemicals used were of analytical grade and obtained from Merck Company Darmstadt, Germany. Double-distilled deionized water was used for preparation of aqueous solutions.
Pomegranates were obtained from the agricultural research centers of Saveh in the Markazi province 10 cultivars in Iran. Commercially ripe fresh fruits were harvested during September of from mature trees randomly selected to represent the population of the plantation. A total of 30 pomegranates three from each cultivar were collected. They were first flushed by tap water and then washed in distilled water three times before the peel and pulp fractions were carefully separated.
For the preparation of pomegranate extract, fresh fruits were peeled and their edible portions seed coats and juice were separated. A portion of 5 g was weighed and ground in a grinder with 50 mL of distilled water. The homogenate was centrifuged at 10, g for 15 min. The supernatant was filtered, diluted 1: The peels were manually removed, sun dried and powdered to get 60 mesh size. Abstract Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of ten juices from arils and whole pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran were studied.
Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of juices from whole pomegranate fruit were significantly higher than juices from pomegranate arils, but the variety has a greater influence than the processing method.
The main phenolics in the studied juices were punicalagin A 5.
Journal of Chemistry
The major and minor anthocyanins of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside 0. The results indicate that the pomegranate phenolics are not only influenced by extraction method but also—and even more—affected by the cultivar. The results of current research can help to select the pomegranate cultivars for commercial juice production. Introduction Pomegranate fruit Punica granatum L. These compounds are discussed as health promoting, but excessive amounts of polyphenols can form undesirable astringent taste.
The pomegranate is consumed worldwide as fresh fruit, juice, jam, and jelly, and nutritional supplements. In recent years, the physicochemical properties of pomegranate fruit such as total phenolic, total anthocyanin, and total tannin contents and antioxidant activity assay with different methods [ 124 — 11 ] and individual phenolic compounds such as flavonoids including anthocyaninsellagitannins, mainly punicalagins, ellagic acid, and punicalins [ 124511 — 14 ] have been published in literature.
Thus, the major phenolic compounds of pomegranate juices have been documented, but no information is available about identification and quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of juices obtained from arils only and from whole Iranian pomegranate cultivars.
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This study can help to select pomegranate cultivars for commercial use. Therefore, the aims of this study were 1 to quantify individual phenolic compounds, 2 to determine total phenolic content as well as antioxidant activity, and 3 to study correlation of these parameters in pomegranate juices obtained from arils and whole pomegranates of different cultivars.
Materials and Methods 2. The trees were planted with an average of 6 m within rows and 3 m between them. The average temperature, the amount of rainfall, and relative humidity in growing season of were Ten fruits approximately 2. It should be noted that the pomegranate fruits in Yazd province were fully matured and harvested between 15th and 30th September [ 12 ]. Chemicals Punicalagin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside standards were purchased from Phytolab Vestenbergsgreuth, Germany and ellagic acid was purchased from Dr.
Preparation of Pomegranate Juice Each pomegranate cultivar was washed in cold tap water and drained. The fruits were pressed using a self-made press consisting of a movable car lifter and a stainless steel pot creating a pressure of Juices were filtered through disposable membrane filters regenerated cellulose, 0.
For the aril juices, the arils were separated manually and the inner white parts of the fruit were removed. The gradient program at a flow rate of 0.
The mass spectrometer was tuned using a solution of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. The following parameters were obtained: The collision gas argon flow used in tandem mass spectrometry experiments was 0. MS detection was used for confirmation of peak identity in selected reaction monitoring SRM mode. For quantification, an external calibration of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was used detection wavelength of nm.
Each sample was analyzed once. Each sample was analysed in duplicate. The mass spectrometer was tuned using a solution of punicalagin, resulting in the following parameters: For quantification, an external calibration of punicalagin and ellagic acid was used detection wavelength of nm.
Results and Discussion 3. These results are in accordance with previously reports on other pomegranate cultivars [ 1241116 ]. Gallic acid, gallagic acid, and galloyl glucose were found in minor amounts only and therefore not considered in the following evaluation. A typical chromatogram of the detected phenolic compounds of pomegranate juice MYW cultivar is shown in Figure 1.
Punicalagins appear as doubly charged ions. The individual and total phenolic contents of all studied cultivars were significantly different. The concentrations of the main phenolics showed wide ranges: In each cultivar, the total individual phenolic content of whole pomegranate juices was increased by 2.
Punicalagin is the most characteristic ellagitannin, because it is found almost exclusively in pomegranate. However, pomegranate arils contain low or no punicalagins, but pomegranate rind parts are an abundant source. The higher punicalagin content of commercial pomegranate juices was due to the entrance of these compounds from rind parts of the fruit during processing [ 111 ].
Punicalagin A in four types of pomegranate juices was The four major hydrolyzable tannins of punicalagin, ellagic acid, punicalin, and gallagic acid were detected in 29 different pomegranate accessions by Tzulker et al.
The contents of these compounds significantly differed in the whole fruit homogenates.