Bennelong - Barani
Arthur Phillip (), admiral and governor, was born on 11 October in Besides offering practical advice Phillip also enunciated some of the He proposed to treat the Aboriginals kindly and to establish harmonious relations with them. .. He made them presents, placed two, Colebe and Bennelong, under his. Bennelong Sydney Barani Aboriginal history biography. About Barani website · Cultural advice · Design · Acknowledgements in a kinship relationship in order to enable communication of customs and relationship to the land. Bennelong was present when Governor Arthur Phillip was speared at Manly in May When celebrating Captain Cook, let's remember the advice he ignored . Governor Phillip did acknowledge the cultural practices demonstrated Henry had a close relationship with Bennelong which started at the time when.
The land rights of the Indigenous peoples, however, were completely ignored. First contact with the Aboriginal peoples Governor Arthur Phillip was aware that the Aboriginal peoples might be hostile to the British, but he wanted to establish friendly relations so that both the British and the Indigenous peoples could live peacefully.
At Botany Bay, Phillip was confronted by the Aboriginal people of that area. Unlike Captain Cook who had shot at the Aboriginal peoples, Phillip put down his weapons and they did the same. Contact with the Indigenous people at Botany Bay from that time was tense but friendly. The Aboriginal peoples may have thought that the white people were the returning spirits of the dead.
As time went on, and the British stayed, there was more contact. Some Aboriginal people stole food and tools, and threw stones at the British boats. The British soldiers and convicts also stole spears, fishing implements and canoes from the Aboriginal peoples. Attempts to understand There were immense differences between the customs and beliefs of the Indigenous people and those of the British colonisers. The British had little understanding of the social structure and spiritual beliefs of Indigenous society and thought them to be primitive and uncivilised; and the Indigenous peoples could not understand the European practices regarding farming and land ownership.
Phillip had ordered that the Aboriginal peoples must be well-treated, and that anyone killing Aboriginal people would be hanged. Even after Phillip was wounded by a spear, he was still keen to befriend the Aboriginal peoples and to learn about their language, culture, and the land.
He captured some Aboriginal people so that they could be taught English and be trained as interpreters. Bennelong The first Indigenous person captured was Arabanoo from the Eora people.
He was captured at Manly and quickly learnt to speak English. He, however, died within a year from the smallpox epidemic. Bennelong and Colbee were the next Aboriginal people to be captured. The next priority was to discover their intentions.
What did the strangers want? Access to hunting grounds? Or, given they didn't appear to have any women with them, and continually asked to meet Eora women, perhaps they wanted wives?ADULT ARTHUR 2 - CROSSFIT
This would take some serious negotiation, since women were the food providers, they bound clans together, and they would bind the strangers into local families through reciprocal rights and obligations. Phillip and the officers only had James Cook and Joseph Banks ' accounts to go on, and they had portrayed the Eora as very few, weak, and cowardly — in other words, a rather pathetic, simple, childlike people whom it would be easy to treat kindly.
But Cook and Banks were wrong — they had forgotten or downplayed the show of strength and daring they themselves encountered from Eora warriors in No wonder Phillip was taken aback to see so many armed men shouting belligerently from the cliff tops, to see those twenty warriors of impressive physique wading out to meet the boat at Kai'ymay.
Governor Phillip and the Eora | The Dictionary of Sydney
This is the real meaning of his name for the Cove there: It was an expression British admiration for their 'manly' qualities. I believe that a key reason Phillip chose Sydney Cove Warrane for the settlement was not only the bright stream of fresh water there, but the fact that it was the one place in Port Jackson where there were no warriors, shouting and waving spears.
Phillip and the officers began their relationship with the Eora through gift-giving, hilarity and dancing but also by showing them what their guns could do. There is no getting around this. Watkin Tench wrote bluntly: So they fired the muskets over the heads of the Eora and shot musket balls right through their wooden shields. They even called the strangers Geerubber: The muskets were also associated with the soldiers' red coats — the sight of which would instantly make the Eora melt away into the bush.
Guns made the first meetings possible but they also stopped the process of communication and friendship in its tracks, and the officers knew it. But by anyone he meant convicts. He had them severely punished for doing so and for stealing from Eora.
Biography - Arthur Phillip - Australian Dictionary of Biography
But this did not mean that officers and other military did not shoot at Aboriginal people — they did, usually with small shot, usually because warriors were throwing spears and stones at them. The first fatality may have occurred in September when Henry Hacking shot into a group while out hunting on the North Shore. When this hope faded, the Eora tried to keep the Berewalgal quarantined in their country, Warrane, Sydney Cove.
They attacked unarmed convicts and fishermen, and occasionally even armed officers and soldiers, whenever they trespassed on lands away from Warrane. In response, he sent two armed parties out to Botany Bay and other places in October to show them, as Collins wrote, 'that their late acts of violence would neither intimidate nor prevent us from moving beyond the settlement whenever occasion required'.
The town depended on the food and building resources of the wider region and so he was determined to demonstrate that they would go where they wished. Part of Phillip's early plan for peaceful co-habitation had been to persuade some Eora — preferably a family — to come and live in the town with the British.
Not only could the British then learn about the Eora, their language, beliefs and customs — the Eora might be convinced of the newcomers' friendly and peaceful intentions.
They could also be introduced to the wonders and comforts of the British way of life and then act as envoys, spreading the message of goodwill and civilisation among their own people. While they were very interested in the Eora, Phillip and the officers seem to have had little inkling that they already had their own complex social and cultural systems and were in no need of British ones.
The idea that the Eora would or could abruptly drop their entire culture and way of life for a British one seems bizarre to us. But that is what the British assumed would happen. When it didn't, they were confused. How could anyone not want to be British? The Eora were also theoretically already British subjects because they were not considered to be the sovereign occupants or owners of the land. Thus they were — supposedly — subject to British justice — also considered a great gift. When forced to watch floggings, for example, they were horrified.
In their own system of justice, the guilty were not bound and helpless but could defend themselves against the spears by parrying with shields. He still had no idea of Eora numbers or their intentions towards the settlers and the warriors had attacked and killed a number of convicts. Phillip decided on a more ruthless strategy: After he died of smallpox, caught during the smallpox epidemic that decimated the Eora from Aprilthe violent skirmishes again escalated. Phillip sent the boats out once more to Manly Cove, and two more warriors were taken — Coleby and Woolarwarree Bennelong.
Bennelong: a foot in two worlds, but a heart in none
They were tied up and held prisoner and under guard at Government House. Coleby soon escaped but the extroverted, charismatic Bennelong remained. Bennelong seemed to be the breakthrough Phillip and the officers were hoping for. Eventually Bennelong and Phillip developed a kind of friendship, walking out together companionably. Phillip seems to have thought of these names in father-son terms: As a warrior enmeshed in the complex, post-smallpox, inter-tribal politics of the region, he seemed to be learning all he could about the Berewalgal, their allegiances, their fighting power, their great reserves of food, and he was doing all he could to please them and make them his allies.
In April the fetter was struck from his leg, and Bennelong stripped off his clothes and escaped. Phillip and the officers were bereft.
Yet another cross-cultural experiment seemed to have failed. If the perpetrator could not stand trial, then someone of his or her family or clan would have to stand for them. Guilt was transferrable to family and clan.
Several historians, including William StannerInga Clendinnen and Keith Vincent Smithbelieve that before any further relations could occur, Phillip had to stand trial and be punished according to Aboriginal Law for his crimes and the crimes of his people.
He and some of the officers hurried over in a boat and were greeted there by Bennelong. Relations were friendly and jovial, just like old times. But Phillip suddenly found himself surrounded by warriors and was then swiftly speared in the shoulder.
There was panic as the officers and men rushed him into the boat and back to Sydney. But the spear was not a death spear and the wound was not fatal. Most importantly, he refused to retaliate, suggesting that he sensed the purpose of the spearing.
Finally, after much negotiation, Bennelong was persuaded to 'come in' to Sydney, along with his family and friends. Bennelong was like a returning king: He asked for a British style gunyah house to be built for him on Tubowgully Bennelong Point and Phillip obliged.
For Bennelong and his people, this move was very likely seen as taking possession of this country at Warrane. Law [media] Phillip and the officers expected the Eora would now obey British law, not only in town but throughout the whole colony.
They were seemingly still unaware that payback was Aboriginal Law and had to be upheld. Because the Eora continued to extend their Law to white colonists, conflict was inevitable.
Governor Phillip and the Eora
McIntyre had earlier wounded a warrior and probably his spearing was payback. Many believed he had committed other serious crimes as well. The Eora needed to be taught a terrifying lesson, once and for all. As well, he wanted ten more men beheaded, and their heads brought back to town. Friendly relations of all kinds were suspended: Phillip agreed but insisted that those not executed would be exiled to the small colony at Norfolk Island.
He added that if warriors could not be arrested, they were to be summarily shot. The party was provided with hatchets for the chopping and bags to carry the heads, so presumably the beheading order was still in force. Despite marching around the area all day, Tench wrote that they failed to find a single person.
So they headed east towards the 'south west arm' of Botany Bay — Georges River. But their guides lost their way and they found themselves on the 'sea shore…about midway between the two arms' that is, the Georges and Cooks Rivers where they saw and tried to surround five Aboriginal people.
But these people escaped, disappearing into the bush. Tench then marched the party to a known 'village' of huts on the 'nearest point of the north arm' — most likely on the south shore of Cooks River near its mouth present day Kyeemagh. But here again the Aboriginal people swiftly paddled to safety to 'the opposite shore'. The mosquito-bitten party returned to Sydney, exhausted and frustrated.
He sent Tench and the soldiers out again. The second expedition, on December 22, left Sydney at sunset, in the hope they would surprise, arrest or kill people while asleep in their camps by now the British knew that the Eora were heavy sleepers.
The party forded two rivers before almost drowning in quicksand in a creek. When they arrived back at the village on Cooks River, it was deserted and had been for some days.
A final attempt to locate, arrest or shoot warriors was made at 1. Tench says he gave up four hours later and marched the soldiers back to Sydney. Contrary to Tench's account, Private Easty says they finally found a group of Aboriginal people on the beach at Botany Bay — but then returned to Sydney.
Those who admire Phillip find it difficult to accept that the enlightened, fair-minded and humane governor gave such gruesome orders and intended the arrest and execution of innocent people rather than just the guilty man.
Inga Clendinnen, taking cues from Tench's perhaps unintentionally comic account, interprets the whole incident as an elaborate piece of farcical theatre performed for the benefit of the unruly and resentful convicts. Wise Phillip knew the party would not find anyone, she says, let alone behead them. He never intended anyone to get hurt, and just to make sure, he put the sympathetic Watkin Tench in charge.
As we have seen, guns and the threat of violence were fundamental to the settlement project from the start. Once Bennelong and his people agreed to 'come in' to Sydney in latePhillip believed he had an agreement that the attacks and killings of unarmed convicts would stop because he thought he had finally brokered peaceful relations via leaders Bennelong and Coleby. When McIntyre was speared and killed, Phillips saw it not only as a final betrayal of all his kindness and patience, but also as a breaking of the 'agreement' for peaceful relations.
The fact that Phillip sent out two expeditions, rather than just one, is significant. Had this been a piece of theatre for the benefit of the convicts and others, one would surely have sufficed. Two — the second starting out at dusk to catch people while they slept — signifies the seriousness of Phillip's intent.