Civilizations: The Principles and the Presumptions | The Mystery of Life | kinenbicounter.info
societies arrayed from savage to civilized, Boas emphasized the uniqueness of the many and varied cultures of .. desirable goals or end states. The more . of a culture. Because our specific interest is in the relationship between culture. Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such. new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. The connection between, culture and language has been noted as far back as” the classical, period, and . People working towards a common goal to survive.
Thus, there is now a growing group of sociologists of culture who are, confusingly, not cultural sociologists. These scholars reject the abstracted postmodern aspects of cultural sociology, and instead look for a theoretical backing in the more scientific vein of social psychology and cognitive science. Part of the legacy of the early development of the field lingers in the methods much of cultural sociological research is qualitativein the theories a variety of critical approaches to sociology are central to current research communitiesand in the substantive focus of the field.
For instance, relationships between popular culturepolitical control, and social class were early and lasting concerns in the field.
Cultural studies In the United Kingdomsociologists and other scholars influenced by Marxism such as Stuart Hall — and Raymond Williams — developed cultural studies. Following nineteenth-century Romantics, they identified "culture" with consumption goods and leisure activities such as art, music, film, foodsports, and clothing. They saw patterns of consumption and leisure as determined by relations of productionwhich led them to focus on class relations and the organization of production.
These practices comprise the ways people do particular things such as watching television, or eating out in a given culture.
Cultural anthropology - Wikipedia
It also studies the meanings and uses people attribute to various objects and practices. Specifically, culture involves those meanings and practices held independently of reason.
Watching television in order to view a public perspective on a historical event should not be thought of as culture, unless referring to the medium of television itself, which may have been selected culturally; however, schoolchildren watching television after school with their friends in order to "fit in" certainly qualifies, since there is no grounded reason for one's participation in this practice.
In the context of cultural studies, the idea of a text includes not only written languagebut also filmsphotographsfashion or hairstyles: The last two, in fact, have become the main focus of cultural studies. A further and recent approach is comparative cultural studiesbased on the disciplines of comparative literature and cultural studies. The British version of cultural studies had originated in the s and s, mainly under the influence of Richard Hoggart, E.
This included overtly political, left-wing views, and criticisms of popular culture as "capitalist" mass culture ; it absorbed some of the ideas of the Frankfurt School critique of the " culture industry " i. This emerges in the writings of early British cultural-studies scholars and their influences: In the United States, Lindlof and Taylor write, "Cultural studies [were] grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition.
This strain of thinking has some influence from the Frankfurt Schoolbut especially from the structuralist Marxism of Louis Althusser and others.
The main focus of an orthodox Marxist approach concentrates on the production of meaning. This model assumes a mass production of culture and identifies power as residing with those producing cultural artifacts. In a Marxist view, those who control the means of production the economic base essentially control a culture. They criticize the Marxist assumption of a single, dominant meaning, shared by all, for any cultural product.
The non-Marxist approaches suggest that different ways of consuming cultural artifacts affect the meaning of the product. This view comes through in the book Doing Cultural Studies: Feminist cultural analyst, theorist, and art historian Griselda Pollock contributed to cultural studies from viewpoints of art history and psychoanalysis. The writer Julia Kristeva is among influential voices at the turn of the century, contributing to cultural studies from the field of art and psychoanalytical French feminism.
The second covers the variables that represent the "social orientation" of societies, i. These variables include gender egalitarianism, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism and human orientation. Ina new approach to culture was suggested by Rein Raud who defines culture as the sum of resources available to human beings for making sense of their world and proposes a two-tiered approach, combining the study of texts all reified meanings in circulation and cultural practices all repeatable actions that involve the production, dissemination or transmission of meaningsthus making it possible to re-link anthropological and sociological study of culture with the tradition of textual theory.
Within little more than a century of the death of the Prophet Muhammad in C. Islamic culture played an important role in preserving and translating ancient Greek texts at a time when much of the knowledge created during the ancient world was lost.
Petrarch a writer who lived in the s described the early Medieval period as the "Dark Ages" because to him it seemed to be a period of declining human achievement, especially when he compared it to the Ancient Greeks and Romans. May,manuscript illumination on vellum, At the top was the king.
Below were lesser nobles. These lords in turn, ruled over peasants and serfs the vast majority of the population. Serfs were laborers who were permanently bound to work the land owned by their lord. The vassal would provide labor in the fields or in battle to the lord in exchange for land and protection. Mobility between strata was very rare. Of course, the thousand years of the Middle Ages saw the creation of many great works of art and literature, but they were different from what Petrarch valued.
The works of art created in the Middle Ages were largely focused on the teachings of the Church. It is important to remember that during the Middle Ages it was rare that anyone except members of the clergy monks, priests, etc.
Despite expectations that the world would end in the year 1, Western Europe became increasingly stable, and this period is sometimes referred to as the Late or High Middle Ages. This period saw the renewal of large scale building and the re-establishment of sizable towns.
Monasteries, such as Cluny, became wealthy and important centers of learning. When we look closely at much of the art and politics of the 1, years of the Middle Ages, we find a complex and ongoing relationship with the memory and legacy of the ancient Roman empire and this is the foundation for the Renaissance. It was also a period of economic prosperity in Europe—particularly in Italy and in Northern Europe.
In art history, we study both the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance. We talk about a way of looking at the world called Humanism, which—at its most basic—placed renewed value on human knowledge, and the experience of this world as opposed to focusing largely on the heavenly realmusing ancient Greek and Roman literature and art as a model. The invention and adoption of the printing press was certainly one. As a result of the wider availability of books, literacy rates in Europe dramatically increased.
In a German theologian and monk, Martin Luther, challenged the authority of the Pope and sparked the Protestant Reformation. His ideas spread quickly, thanks in part to the printing press. By challenging the power of the Church, and asserting the authority of individual conscience it was increasingly possible for people to read the bible in the language that they spokethe Reformation laid the foundation for the value that modern culture places on the individual.
It is also during this period that the Scientific Revolution began and observation replaced religious doctrine as the source of our understanding of the universe and our place in it. Copernicus up-ended the ancient Greek model of the heavens by suggesting that the sun was at the center of the solar system and that the planets orbited in circles around it.
However, there were still problems with getting this theory to match observation. One common criticism of participant observation is its lack of objectivity.
Who the ethnographer is has a lot to do with what he or she will eventually write about a culture, because each researcher is influenced by his or her own perspective. However, these approaches have not generally been successful, and modern ethnographers often choose to include their personal experiences and possible biases in their writing instead. In terms of representation, an anthropologist has greater power than his or her subjects of study, and this has drawn criticism of participant observation in general.
Simply by being present, a researcher causes changes in a culture, and anthropologists continue to question whether or not it is appropriate to influence the cultures they study, or possible to avoid having influence.
Culture - Wikipedia
Ethnography In the 20th century, most cultural and social anthropologists turned to the crafting of ethnographies. An ethnography is a piece of writing about a people, at a particular place and time. Typically, the anthropologist lives among people in another society for a period of time, simultaneously participating in and observing the social and cultural life of the group.
Numerous other ethnographic techniques have resulted in ethnographic writing or details being preserved, as cultural anthropologists also curate materials, spend long hours in libraries, churches and schools poring over records, investigate graveyards, and decipher ancient scripts.
A typical ethnography will also include information about physical geography, climate and habitat. It is meant to be a holistic piece of writing about the people in question, and today often includes the longest possible timeline of past events that the ethnographer can obtain through primary and secondary research. Boas' students such as Alfred L. KroeberRuth Benedict and Margaret Mead drew on his conception of culture and cultural relativism to develop cultural anthropology in the United States.
Simultaneously, Malinowski and A. Whereas cultural anthropology focused on symbols and values, social anthropology focused on social groups and institutions. Today socio-cultural anthropologists attend to all these elements. In the early 20th century, socio-cultural anthropology developed in different forms in Europe and in the United States.
European " social anthropologists " focused on observed social behaviors and on "social structure", that is, on relationships among social roles for example, husband and wife, or parent and child and social institutions for example, religioneconomyand politics.