A Brief Analysis of the Relation between Estha and Rahel « linguarydberg
God of small things twins relations by ladyanners in of, God, and Small. Estha and Rahel “never did look much like each other” and the confusion regarding. What is the relationship between a dream and a possibility? .. When Rahel lies on Estha's bed “It was a little cold. .. of the social order and been enshrined as the figure for whom that order must be held in perpetual trust. Two of the protagonists in The God of Small Things, written by Arundhati Roy, are Rahel and Estha. Rahel has an incredible imagination in several ways. During.
Pappachi considered this the greatest failure of his life, and the moth supposedly inspired his fits of rage in later life. Mammachi still cried when Pappachi died, and Ammu told the twins it was because Mammachi had gotten used to her husband and his violence. The fact that Mammachi could live with Pappachi, and even cry when he died, shows how deeply ingrained such traditions as the male-dominated Indian social system are.
Pappachi, as Imperial Entomologist, represents the old upper class. The twins would later grow more familiar with the History House, as a place where history was acted out as violence, and again they think of the smell of old roses.
India gained its independence from Britain years earlier, but evidence of British culture is everywhere, like the fact that the family speaks English and is going to see a movie in English. Chacko, as a man, was given all the love and privilege that Ammu was denied. He is also one of the few members of the family with actual credentials to back up his pride and sense of superiority — others like Baby Kochamma rely solely on the family name and class.
Active Themes In the car the twins are worried about being late for The Sound of Music, as they get stopped by an approaching train. While they wait the twins read signs backwards. Active Themes Most of the waiting cars shut off their engines as the delay lengthens.
Beggars and vendors appear, and Estha watches Murlidharan, an insane man who sits on the milestone at the crossing, counting his keys and reliving old memories, while Rahel imagines what is happening in The Sound of Music. Suddenly the beggars disappear and a huge march of Marxists sweeps through the line of cars, carrying red flags. The Communist Party is very successful in Kerala during this time period, and threatens to upset the social order the Ipes defend.
Baby Kochamma is terrified and tries to avoid eye contact with any of the marchers. Though Chacko agrees with Marxist ideas, in practice he still upholds the class divisions between landlord and laborer. The rise of Communism is the kind of large social change that the entrenched upper class fears.
Active Themes Chacko had become enthralled with Marxism in college, and he and Pappachi would argue every day about the Communist government — led by Comrade E. Namboodiripad — that had recently been elected in Kerala. Ten years of political chaos followed, and then the Communists were reelected. Chacko can dabble in Marxism without consequences, as he has the luxury of not actually belonging to the laboring class.
Years later Namboodiripad will become the leader of the first democratically elected Communist government of all of India.
Active Themes There had recently been a famine in India, so the government put revolution on hold to fight hunger. This angered the Chinese Communist Party, and they began to support a militant faction of the Indian Communist Party called the Naxalites. The Naxalites had since broken off and begun arming militias in small villages and occasionally killing landowners. The Naxalite movement is the great fear of the upper classes during this time.
Comrade Pillai, because of his own ambitions in the Communist Partytells Chacko that Velutha is a dangerous party member who should be fired. Velutha comes to see Comrade Pillai, after Mammachi screams at him and fires him, and Comrade Pillai tells Velutha that he has no support from the party. In chapter 15, Velutha swims across the river to the History House.
Chapters 16—20 The twins and Sophie Mol run away from home in chapter 16, and Sophie Mol drowns after their boat tips over on the way to the History House. Chapter 17, in the present day, describes Rahel and Estha lying in bed, remembering their childhood. In chapter 18, the Kottayam police find Velutha sleeping next to Rahel and Estha at the History House, they and beat him until he is nearly dead. Inspector Mathew interviews the twins in chapter 19 and discovers that Velutha is innocent. He tells Baby Kochamma that if the children do not identify Velutha as their abductor, he will accuse Baby Kochamma of filing a false report.
It is not until the next morning, after Velutha has died, that Ammu goes to the police station to set the record straight. Chapter 20 describes the scene at the train station when Estha is leaving for Calcutta, and then changes to the present tense, when Estha and Rahel begin to make love.
Chapter 21 flashes back to the point at which Ammu finds Velutha at the river and she and Velutha make love for the first time. Her portrait hangs prominently beside that of Reverend Ipe in the Ayemenem House. Ammu divorces him when the children are very young. He was a violent alcoholic who not only beat his wife and children, but attempted to prostitute his wife to his English employer.
When Estha is an adult, Baba sends him back to Ayemenem and emigrates to Australia. She is a beautiful and sardonic woman who has been victimized first by her father and then her husband. While raising her children, she has become tense and repressed. Ammu grew up in Delhi but, because her father said that college was an unnecessary expense for a girl, was forced to live with her parents when they moved to Ayemenem. She met her future husband at a wedding reception. She later divorces him and returns to the Ayemenem House when he starts to abuse the twins.
After the horrific climax to the affair, Ammu sends Estha to live with his father and leaves Rahel in the Ayemenem House while Ammu looks for work; but Ammu loses a succession of jobs because she is ill. Ammu dies alone in a cheap hotel at the age of thirty-one. Chacko has her cremated because the Syrian Christian Church will not bury her. Throughout her life, Baby Kochamma is an insecure, selfish, and vindictive person.
When she was a girl, Baby Kochamma fell in love with a handsome Irish monk named Father Mulligan who made weekly visits to her father. Although they did nothing more than flirt while talking about the Bible, when he moved to Madras she became a Roman Catholic and entered a convent in Madras in the hopes of being with him. After her hopes were crushed, she left the convent and traveled to the United States to study, returning to India obese and devoted to gardening.
She is later revealed to be cruel and insidious, because she is the one that convinces the twins to condemn Velutha; and it was due to her manipulations of Chacko that Ammu is forced to leave the house and Estha is returned to his father. In her old age, Baby Kochamma becomes a bitter and lonely woman addicted to television, after having locked herself inside the family house.
Deeply in love with Margaret, in part because she never depended on him or adored him like a mother, he marries her without telling his family.
She grows tired of his squalor within a year, however, and divorces him around the time that their daughter is born.
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He was also unsuccessful at running the pickle factory, which started to lose money as soon as he attempted to expand the operation. However, he is insistent that he is the sole owner of his factory, his house, and other possessions that he actually shares with women. After her death, he emigrates to Canada.
This trauma, in addition to being shipped to Calcutta to live with his father, contributes to Estha becoming mute at some point in his childhood. Estha never went to college and acquired a number of habits, such as wandering on very long walks and obsessively cleaning his clothes.
He is so close to his sister that the narrator describes them as one person, despite having been separated for most of their lives. Brutally beaten by her husband, she nevertheless cries at his funeral and shares many of his values, including an extremely rigid view of the caste system.
Mammachi loves Chacko with blind admiration and deeply dislikes Margaret Kochamma. She is from a strict, working-class London family and was working as a waitress in Oxford when she met Chacko. Marrying him because of his uncontrolled personality that made her feel free, Margaret soon realized that she did not need him to accept herself, and she divorced him.
Seventeen years older than his wife, he was extremely resentful of her and beat her regularly with a brass vase until Chacko ordered him never to do it again. Pappachi Kochamma also beat his daughter and smashed furniture, although in public he convinced everyone that he was compassionate and neglected by his wife. In his old age, he rode around in his blue Plymouth that he kept entirely to himself. Although Ammu often chastises Rahel for being dirty and unsafe, she loves her very deeply, and Rahel is equally devoted to her mother.
Although these events do not seem to deprive her of her quirkiness or brightness, they contribute to her sense of sadness and lack of direction in later life. After Ammu dies, Rahel drifts between schools, receiving little attention from Mammachi or Chacko. Rahel then enters an architecture school but never finishes the course, marries an American named Larry McCaslin, and lives with him in Boston until they are divorced. She moves to Washington, D. Kochu Thomban Kochu Thomban is the Ayemenem temple elephant.
She is killed by a milk van. Eventually, he converts to Hinduism, staying in touch with Baby Kochamma, and dies of viral hepatitis.
Orangedrink Lemondrink Man The man who works behind the refreshments counter at the Abhilash Talkies movie theater forces Estha to masturbate him. With many connections and building influence, he is involved in a number of business ventures, including making signs for the pickle factory. This does not help him rise to power in the party, however. He is a slightly awkward boy who grows up to be a secretary in Delhi. She is a frank and spirited English girl characterized by her bellbottoms and her go-go bag.
Although the twins are prejudiced against her because they have been so insistently instructed about how to behave when she arrives, she manages to win them over. This is partly because she is charming and outgoing, and partly because she rejected the advances of Chacko, Mammachi, and Baby Kochamma in favor of befriending Rahel and Estha. Although Sophie Mol never takes to Indian culture, she does make a great effort with the twins before she accidentally falls into the river and drowns.
Velutha became an accomplished carpenter and mechanic, and acquired an assurance that scared his father because it was unacceptable among Untouchables. Velutha disappeared for four years and was hired by Mammachi upon his return to Ayemenem. A member of the Communist Party, he never quite fits into his role as an Untouchable, and he begins an extremely passionate affair with Ammu when Sophie Mol arrives in Ayemenem.
After Comrade Pillai refuses to help him, the police officers beat him, and Estha identifies him as their abductor. Velutha dies in jail. However, the novel also examines the historical roots of these realities and develops profound insights into the ways in which human desperation and desire emerge from the confines of a firmly entrenched caste society.
Roy reveals a complex and longstanding class conflict in the state of Kerala, India, and she comments on its various competing forces. Roy is also highly critical of the hypocrisy and ruthlessness of the conventional, traditional moral code of Pappachi and Mammachi.
On the opposite side of the political fence, the Kerala Communist Party, at least the faction represented by Comrade Pillai, is revealed to be much more concerned with personal ambition than with any notions of social justice. Class Relations and Cultural Tensions In addition to her commentary on Indian history and politics, Roy evaluates the Indian postcolonial complex, or the cultural attitudes of many Indians towards their former British rulers.
Topics For Further Study Roy has published a great deal of political writing, has worked as an activist, and has been imprisoned for her political beliefs.
Research her political views and activities, and read some of her political writings. What have been the results of her activism in India and around the world? Narayan and Salman Rushdie. What innovations does Roy bring to Indian literature in English, and why are they important? Some readers and critics have found elements of The God of Small Things offensive or controversial.
Research the nature of the outcry against the novel, particularly in India and in Britain. Which aspects of the work were controversial, and why? What were the results of the controversy? Describe your reaction to moments of the novel such as when Estha is forced to masturbate the Orangedrink Lemondrink Man, when Ammu and Velutha make love, and when Rahel and Estha make love.
Discuss how elements of the forbidden and the taboo relate to the central themes of the novel. Communism has been a uniquely prominent force in the state of Kerala, India. Research the activities of the various factions of the Communist Party in Kerala. How did communism develop and spread in the region?
A Brief Analysis of the Relation between Estha and Rahel
How does the history of the communist parties in Kerala relate to the history of communism throughout South Asia? Discuss the state of communism in Kerala today. A related inferiority complex is evident in the interactions between Untouchables and Touchables in Ayemenem. Vellya Paapen is an example of an Untouchable so grateful to the Touchable class that he is willing to kill his son when he discovers that his son has broken the most important rule of class segregation—that there be no inter-class sexual relations.
Characters such as Baby Kochamma and Pappachi are the most rigid and vicious in their attempts to uphold that social code, while Ammu and Velutha are the most unconventional and daring in unraveling it. Roy implies that this is why they are punished so severely for their transgression.
Another is that conventional society somehow seeks to destroy real love, which is why love in the novel is consistently connected to loss, death, and sadness. Also, because all romantic love in the novel relates closely to politics and history, it is possible that Roy is stressing the interconnectedness of personal desire to larger themes of history and social circumstances.
Style Non-sequential Narrative The God of Small Things is not written in a sequential narrative style in which events unfold chronologically. Instead, the novel is a patchwork of flashbacks and lengthy sidetracks that weave together to tell the story of the Kochamma family.
This non-sequential narrative style, which determines the form of the novel, is an extremely useful authorial tool. It allows Roy a great deal of flexibility as she chooses which themes and events are most important to pursue.
Because of this technique, called foreshadowing, Roy builds considerable tension and intrigue into The God of Small Things, and she is able to play with the expectation and anticipation that the reader feels. Historical Context Because of the efforts of the political and religious leader Mohandas Gandhi, India became independent on August 15, at the stroke of midnight, after more than three hundred years of a British colonial presence.
The British partitioned the former colony into the nations of India and Pakistan comprised of East and West regionsbut this was unsuccessful in quelling agitations between Hindus and Muslims. The borders were only rough designations of religious majorities, and millions died as Hindus in Pakistan moved to majority-Hindu India, and Muslims in India moved to majority-Muslim Pakistan.
Ammu was five years old inliving with her family in the Indian capital of New Delhi. Jawaharlal Nehruthe Prime Minister of India from Independence until his death instruggled to foster economic growth and became involved in various territorial disputes.
Namboodiripad inbut Nehru dissolved it in Inthe year Rahel and Estha were born, India fought a limited war over a border dispute with China. As a result of the Chinese conflict, the CPI split between a pro-Russian faction, still called the CPI, and a faction that grew to be less influenced by foreign governments, called the Communist Party of India Marxist.
In the mid- s, a further split in the Indian communist parties formed the Naxalites, who advocated an immediate communist revolution, while tensions between Pakistan and India flared into war in Although Indira Gandhi remained in control of the larger, liberal faction, she was forced to forge alliances with left-wing parties in order to maintain control of the government.
A series of leadership struggles begins inwhen Rao is forced out of power. He threatens to hold Baby Kochamma responsible for falsely accusing Velutha. To save herself, Baby Kochamma tricks Rahel and Estha into believing that the two of them would be implicated as having murdered Sophie out of jealousy and were facing sure imprisonment for them and their Ammu.
She thus convinces them to lie to the inspector that Velutha had kidnapped them and had murdered Sophie. Velutha dies of his injuries overnight. After Sophie's funeral, Ammu goes to the police to tell the truth about her relationship with Velutha. Afraid of being exposed, Baby Kochamma convinces Chacko that Ammu and the twins were responsible for his daughter's death. Chacko kicks Ammu out of the house and forces her to send Estha to live with his father. Estha never sees Ammu again.
She dies alone a few years later at the age of After a turbulent childhood and adolescence in India, Rahel gets married and goes to America. There, she divorces before returning to Ayemenem after years of working dead-end jobs. Rahel and Estha, now 31, are reunited for the first time since they were children.
They had been haunted by their guilt and their grief-ridden pasts. It becomes apparent that neither twin ever found another person who understood them in the way they understand each other. Toward the end of the novel, the twins have sex. The novel comes to a close with a nostalgic recounting of Ammu and Velutha's love affair. He is a serious, intelligent, and somewhat nervous child who wears "beige and pointy shoes" and has an "Elvis puff.
The narrator emphasizes that Estha's "Two Thoughts" in the pickle factory, stemming from this experience—that "Anything can happen to Anyone" and that "It's best to be prepared"—are critical in leading to his cousin's death.
Estha is the twin chosen by Baby Kochamma, because he is more "practical" and "responsible," to go into Velutha's cell at the end of the book and condemn him as his and Rahel's abductor. This trauma, in addition to the trauma of being shipped or "Returned" to Calcutta to live with his father, contributes to Estha's becoming mute at some point in his childhood.
He never goes to college and acquires a number of habits, such as wandering on very long walks and obsessively cleaning his clothes. He is so close to his sister that the narrator describes them as one person, despite having been separated for most of their lives. He is repeatedly referred to as "Silent. As a girl of seven, her hair sits "on top of her head like a fountain" in a "Love-in-Tokyo" band, and she often wears red-tinted plastic sunglasses with yellow rims.
An intelligent and straightforward person who has never felt socially comfortable, she is impulsive and wild, and it is implied that everyone but Velutha treats her as somehow lesser than her brother.
In later life, she becomes something of a drifter; several times, the narrator refers to her "Emptiness. Ammu Ammu is Rahel's and Estha's mother. She married their father referred to as Baba only to get away from her family. He was an alcoholic, and she divorced him when he started to be violent toward her and her children. She went back to Ayemenem, where people avoided her on the days when the radio played "her music" and she got a wild look in her eyes.
When the twins are seven, she has an affair with Velutha. This relationship is one of the cataclysmic events in the novel. She is a strict mother, and her children worry about losing her love. Velutha Velutha is a Paravan, an Untouchablewho is exceptionally smart and works as a carpenter at the Ipe family's pickle factory. His name means white in Malayalambecause he is so dark.
He returns to Ayemenem to help his father, Vellya Paapen, take care of his brother, who was paralyzed in an accident. He is an active member of the Marxist movement. Velutha is extremely kind to the twins, and has an affair with Ammu for which he is brutally punished. Chacko Chacko is Estha's and Rahel's maternal uncle. He is four years elder to Ammu. They have a daughter, Sophie, whose death in Ayemenem is central to the story.
Baby Kochamma Baby Kochamma is the twins' maternal great aunt. She is of petite build as a young woman but becomes enormously overweight, with "a mole on her neck," by the time of Sophie's death. She maintains an attitude of superiority because of her education as a garden designer in the United States and her burning, unrequited love for an Irish Catholic priest, her relationship with whom is the only meaningful event in her life.
Her own emptiness and failure spark bitter spite for her sister's children, further driven by her prudish code of conventional values. Her spite ultimately condemns the twins, the lovers, and herself to a lifetime of misery.
Themes[ edit ] Indian history and politics[ edit ] Indian history and politics shape the plot and meaning of The God of Small Things in a variety of ways.
Relationships in The God of Small Things – johnsenglishsite
Some of Roy's commentary is on the surface, with jokes and snippets of wisdom about political realities in India. However, the novel also examines the historical roots of these realities and develops profound insights into the ways in which human desperation and desire emerge from the confines of a firmly entrenched caste society.
During the time in India, class was a major issue and still is in many parts of India. Class relations and cultural tensions[ edit ] In addition to her commentary on Indian history and politics, Roy evaluates the Indian post-colonial complex, or the cultural attitudes of many Indians toward their former British rulers. After Ammu calls her father a "[shit]-wiper" in Hindi for his blind devotion to the British, Chacko explains to the twins that they come from a family of Anglophiles, or lovers of British culture, "trapped outside their own history and unable to retrace their steps.
A related inferiority complex is evident in the interactions between Untouchables and Touchables in Ayemenem. Vellya Paapen is an example of an Untouchable so grateful to the Touchable class that he is willing to kill his son, Velutha, when he discovers that Velutha has broken the most important rule of class segregation—that there be no inter-caste sexual relations.
In part, this reflects how many Untouchables have internalized caste segregation. Nearly all of the relationships in the novel are somehow colored by cultural and class tension, including the twins' relationship with Sophie, Chacko's relationship with Margaret, Pappachi's relationship with his family, and Ammu's relationship with Velutha.