Read chapter Self-Confidence and Performance: Can such techniques as sleep an overview of the self-efficacy concept of self-confidence and its relationship to personal ethics while simultaneously believing that this survival probability is .. establish learning environments that include evaluating student achievement . 10 Self Esteem and Secondary School Students. .. there is a strong relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement, but there Those who feel confident, generally achieve more, while those who lack confidence in . the self, such as how people feel about their social standing, racial or ethnic group. Distribution of Respondents based on the Moral Ethics Self-concept. Distribution of Skills towards Academic Achievement among Secondary only develop a student's self-confidence but also enhance his self-concept. Keywords.
For a thorough discussion of self-concept, see Hattie, Although self-confidence and self-esteem may be related, individuals can have one without necessarily having the other. Certain individuals may not have high self-confidence for a given activity, but still "like themselves"; by contrast, there are others who may regard themselves as highly competent at a given activity but do not have corresponding feelings of self-esteem. For a thorough discussion of the concept of self-esteem with respect to work behavior, see Brockner, Other related concepts include locus of control, optimism or pessimism learned helplessnesshealthy illusions, and level of aspiration.
Rotter's notion of locus of control is concerned with a person's generalized expectancies about his or her ability to control reinforcements in life: Although an internal locus of control orientation may create a high sense of confidence, the two constructs must be distinguished.
Bandura points out that locus of control is based on outcome expectancies rather than confidence expectancies. For instance, people who believe that their physical health is personally determined but find it is failing despite their efforts to improve it would experience low self-confidence.
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Studies have shown that task-specific self-confidence expectancies are better predictors of successful behavior in specific situations than are general measures of perceived control Kaplan et al.
Optimism and pessimism have been defined by some authors in terms of generalized expectancies for internal or external locus of control Scheier and Carver, Scheier and Carver In an attributional view, individuals base their expectations for controlling future events on their causal explanations for past events.
Optimism is the tendency to attribute negative events to causes that are unstable, specific, and external; pessimism or learned helplessness is the tendency to attribute negative events to causes that are stable, global, and internal.
Optimism and pessimism or learned helplessness are considered to be much more global concepts than task-specific Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: In addition, optimism and pessimism emphasize perceptions of controllability of the environment rather than the sense of personal agency to control the environment.
A concept similar to optimism has been described as healthy illusions Taylor and Brown, or positive denial Lazarus,which involves a slight distortion of reality in the positive direction. Such illusions can help sustain one's hopes of success, keep morale high, and lower anxiety Hackett and Cassem, As Peterson and Bossio explain in relation to severe illnesses, the immediate denial of the severity of an illness allows individuals to face crises slowly, which helps their motivation to recover.
However, if denial or illusion is too far removed from reality, it can get in the way of recovery and taking action to improve one's situation or performance. Level of aspiration, first conceptualized in the s within the scientific analysis of goal-striving behavior, is concerned with people's estimation of their subsequent performance prior to trying a task.
An early investigator Frank, These reactions could lead to trying harder, leaving the activity altogether, or continuing with a readjusted level of aspiration Lewin et al. Early investigations on levels of aspiration were the precursors to modern research on various cognitive aspects of goal-setting, self-appraisal, and feeling of satisfaction regarding relative success and failure.
Much of the basis for current views on self-regulation in terms of self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reaction can be found within the level-of-aspiration paradigm see Bandura, ; Carver and Scheier, The earlier research, most of which occurred in the s and s see, e.
One general finding in relation to success and failure was that subjects raised their level of aspiration after success and lowered it after failure. However, Bandura has shown that this finding does not automatically occur in real-life tasks: Whether one raises one's level of aspiration or not depends more on one's level of task-specific self-confidence.
In contrast, Carver and Scheier emphasize the rate of discrepancy reduction or rate of progress made toward a goal over time in determining one's level of aspiration. Although many of the concepts related to self-confidence are investigated from different perspectives, the phenomenon of interest for most of them is the cognitive process by which a person regulates thoughts and action to attain desired outcomes or to control events in his or her life.
Bandura poses self-confidence as a common cognitive mechanism for mediating people's motivation, thought patterns, emotional reactions, and behavior. The theory was originally proposed to account for the different results achieved by the diverse methods used in clinical psychology for treating anxiety.
It has since been expanded and applied to other domains of psychosocial functioning, including motivation, cognitive skill acquisition, career choice and development, health and exercise behavior, and motor performance. The theory has also been found to be equally predictive cross-culturally Earley, ; Matsui, ; Matsui and Onglatco, Self-Confidence Information Self-confidence beliefs, defined as people's judgments of their capability to perform specific tasks, are a product of a complex process of self-persuasion that relies on cognitive processing of diverse sources of confidence information Bandura, These sources of information include performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological states.
Performance accomplishments are supposed to provide the most dependable confidence information because they are based on one's own mastery experiences. One's mastery experiences affect self-confidence beliefs through cognitive processing of such information.
If one has repeatedly viewed these experiences as successes, self-confidence will increase; if these experiences were viewed as failures, self-confidence will decrease. Furthermore, the self-monitoring or focus on successes or failures should have differential effects on behavior and self-confidence, depending on which is monitored Bandura, Bandura has argued that performance accomplishments on difficult tasks, tasks attempted independently, and tasks accomplished early in learning with only occasional failures carry greater confidence value than easy tasks, tasks accomplished with external aids, or tasks in which repeated failures are experienced early in the learning process without any sign of progress.
Confidence information can also be derived through a social comparison process with others Festinger, Vicarious sources of confidence information are thought to be generally weaker than performance accomplishments; however, their influence on self-confidence can be enhanced by a number of factors. For instance, the less experience people have had with performance situations, the more they will rely on others in judging their own capabilities.
The effectiveness of modeling procedures on one's self-confidence has also been shown to be enhanced by perceived similarities to a model in terms of performance or personal characteristics George et al.
Persuasive techniques are widely used by instructors, managers, coaches, parents, and peers in attempting to influence a learner's confidence, motivation, and behavior. In acquiring expert performance, Ericsson and his colleagues put a great deal of emphasis on parents' and teachers' expectations and verbal persuasions that a child is "talented" as a major influence on the child's self-confidence, motivation, and perceived protection "against doubts about eventual success during the ups and downs of extended preparation" Ericsson et al.
Persuasive information includes verbal persuasion, evaluative feedback, expectations by others, self-talk, imagery, and other cognitive strategies.
The Relationship of Parenting Styles, Self-confidence and Students’ Academic Achievement
Self-confidence beliefs based on this type of information, however, are likely to be weaker than those based on one's accomplishments, according to the theory. In addition, persuasive techniques are thought to be most effective when the heightened appraisal is slightly beyond what the person can presently do but still within realistic bounds because people are generally aware that better performances are achievable through extra effort Bandura, The extent of persuasive influence on self-confidence has also been hypothesized to depend on the prestige, credibility, expertise, and trustworthiness of the persuader.
The causal attributions that one makes regarding previous achievement behavior also can be thought of as a source of self-persuasive information in formulating future confidence expectations. Causal attributions for previous behavior have been shown to predict confidence expectations McAuley, ; Schunk and Cox, This relationship is discussed in more detail below. Such information is provided through cognitive appraisal Bandura,such as associating physiological arousal with fear and self-doubt or with being psyched up and ready for performance.
Eden also suggests that the stress one experiences in work can influence confidence judgments about one's coping capacity for the job. Bandura also notes that physiological sources of self-confidence judgment are not limited to autonomic arousal. How various sources of information are weighted and processed to make judgments given different tasks, situations, and individual skills is as yet unknown.
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The Relationship of Parenting Styles, Self-confidence and Students’ Academic Achievement
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