Joseph Haydn - Wikipedia
Learn more about Austrian composer Franz Joseph Haydn, who His youngest brother, Johann Evangelist, sang tenor in the church choir of the Esterhazy In , Haydn began his lifelong relationship with the wealthiest. Amazing Facts About Franz Joseph Haydn There was talk of performing a delicate operation on Haydn so his voice when he was offered a job by Prince Paul Anton of the powerful Esterházy family. He wasn't formally a teacher of Mozart, but the two had a close relationship and high mutual regard. The Austrian composer Franz Joseph Haydn () in his instrumental music, During the 3 decades of his Esterházy service Haydn's output was prodigious. This relationship dates from the time Mozart took up residence in Vienna in.
All but one of the portraits show Haydn wearing the grey powdered wig fashionable for men in the eighteenth century, and from the one exception we learn that Haydn was bald in adulthood. Haydn has been called the "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet" Haydn is often described as the "father" of the classical symphony and string quartet.
In fact, the symphony was already a well-established form before Haydn began his compositional career, with distinguished examples by Carl Philip Emmanuel Bach among others, but Haydn's symphonies are the earliest to remain in "standard" repertoire. His parenthood of the string quartet, however, is beyond doubt in that he essentially invented this medium single-handedly. He also wrote many piano sonataspiano trios, divertimentos and masses, which became the foundation for the Classical music style in these compositional types.
He also wrote other types of chamber musicas well as operas and concerti, although such compositions are now less known. Although other composers were prominent in the earlier Classical period, notably C. Bach in the field of the keyboard sonata, and J. Bach and Leopold Mozart in the symphony, Haydn was undoubtedly the strongest overall influence on musical style in this era.
The development of the sonata form into a subtle and flexible mode of musical expression, which became the dominant force in Classical musical thought, owed much to Haydn and those who followed his ideas. His sense of formal inventiveness also led him to integrate the fugue into the classical style and to enrich the rondo form with a cohesive tonal logic.
Haydn was also the principal exponent of the double variation form, known as variations on two alternating themes, which are often major and minor mode versions of each other. Structure and character of the music A central characteristic of Haydn's music is the development of larger structures out of very short, simple musical motifs, usually devised from standard accompanying figures. The music is often quite formally concentrated, and the important musical events of a movement can unfold rather quickly.
Haydn's musical practice formed the basis of much of what was to follow in the development of tonality and musical form. He took genres such as the symphonywhich were at the time shorter and subsidiary to more important vocal music, and slowly expanded their length, weight and complexity. Haydn's compositional practice was rooted in a study of the modal counterpoint of Johann Fux, and the tonal homophonic styles which had become more and more popular, particularly the work of Gluck and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.
Of the latter Haydn wrote, "without him, we know nothing. In this regard he anticipated Ludwig van Beethoven. Haydn's work became central to what was later described as sonata form, and his work was central to taking the binary schematic of what was then called a "melodie. One of Haydn's important innovations adopted by Mozart and Beethoven was to make the moment of transition the focus of tremendous creativity. Instead of using stock devices to make the transition, Haydn would often find inventive ways to make the move between two expected keys.
Biography of Joseph Haydn
Later musical theorists would codify the formal organization in the following way: Sonata allegro form - Introduction: If present in an extended form, a slower section in the dominant, often with material not directly related to the main themes, which would then rapidly transition to the Sonata allegro form - Exposition: Presentation of thematic material, including a progression of tonality away from the home key.
Unlike Mozart and Beethoven, Haydn often wrote expositions where the music that establishes the new key is similar or identical to the opening theme: Sonata allegro form - Development: The thematic material is led through a rapidly-shifting sequence of keys, transformed, fragmented, or combined with new material. If not present, the work is termed a "sonatina. Sonata allegro form - Recapitulation: Return to the home key, where the material of the exposition is re-presented.
Haydn, unlike Mozart and Beethoven, often rearranges the order of themes compared to the exposition: Sonata allegro form - Coda: After the close of the recapitulation on the tonic, there may be an additional section which works through more of the possibilities of the thematic material. During this period the written music was structured by tonalityand the sections of a work of the Classical era were marked by tonal cadences.
The most important transitions between sections were from the exposition to the development and from the development to the recapitulation. Haydn focused on creating witty and often dramatic ways to effect these transitions, by delaying them, or by making them so subtle that it takes some time before it is established that the transition has occurred.
Perhaps paradoxically, one of the ways in which Haydn achieved this was by reducing the range of devices used in harmonic transitions, so that he could explore and develop the possibilities of those he regarded as most interesting. Perhaps this is why, more than any other composer, Haydn's music is known for its humor. The most famous example is the sudden loud chord in the slow movement of his Surprise symphony, No.
Haydn's many other musical jokes include the fake endings in the quartets Op. Haydn's compositional practice influenced both Mozart and Beethoven. Beethoven began his career writing rather discursive, loosely organized sonata expositions. With the onset of his "Middle period," he revived and intensified Haydn's practice, joining the musical structure to tight small motifs, often by gradually reshaping both the work and the motifs so that they fit quite carefully.
The emotional content of Haydn's music cannot accurately be summarized in a few words, but one may attempt an approximate description. Much of the music was written to please and delight a prince, and its emotional tone is correspondingly upbeat. This tone also reflects, perhaps, Haydn's fundamentally healthy and well-balanced personality. Occasional minor-key works, often deadly serious in character, form striking exceptions to the general rule. Haydn's fast movements tend to be rhythmically propulsive and often impart a great sense of energy, especially in the finales.
Some characteristic examples of Haydn's "rollicking" finale type are found in the Symphony No. Haydn's early slow movements are usually not too slow in tempo, nor relaxed and reflective. Later on, the emotional range of the slow movements increases, notably in the deeply felt slow movements of the quartets Op. The minuets tend to have a strong downbeat and a clearly popular character. Late in his career, perhaps inspired by the young Beethoven who was briefly his studentHaydn began to write scherzi instead of minuets, with a much faster tempo, felt as one beat to the measure.
Evolution of Haydn's style Haydn's early works date from a period in which the compositional style of the High Baroque seen in Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel had gone out of fashion.
This was a period of exploration and uncertainty, and Haydn, born 18 years before the death of Bach, was himself one of the musical explorers of this time. Life in the Frankh household was not easy for Haydn, who later remembered being frequently hungry  and humiliated by the filthy state of his clothing. The people of Hainburg heard him sing treble parts in the church choir. There is reason to think that Haydn's singing impressed those who heard him, because in [e] he was brought to the attention of Georg von Reutterthe director of music in St.
Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, who happened to be visiting Hainburg and was looking for new choirboys. Haydn passed his audition with Reutter, and after several months of further training moved to Viennawhere he worked for the next nine years as a chorister.
Haydn and Mozart
Haydn lived in the Kapellhaus next to the cathedral, along with Reutter, Reutter's family, and the other four choirboys, which after included his younger brother Michael. Stephen's was one of the leading musical centres in Europe, Haydn learned a great deal simply by serving as a professional musician there. As he later told his biographer Albert Christoph DiesHaydn was motivated to sing well, in hopes of gaining more invitations to perform before aristocratic audiences—where the singers were usually served refreshments.
Empress Maria Theresa herself complained to Reutter about his singing, calling it "crowing". Haydn was first canedthen summarily dismissed and sent into the streets.
Haydn immediately began his pursuit of a career as a freelance musician. As a remedy, he worked his way through the counterpoint exercises in the text Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux and carefully studied the work of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bachwhom he later acknowledged as an important influence.
The work was premiered successfully inbut was soon closed down by the censors due to "offensive remarks". He was among several musicians who were paid for services as supplementary musicians at balls given for the imperial children during carnival season, and as supplementary singers in the imperial chapel the Hofkapelle in Lent and Holy Week.
Countess Thun, [f] having seen one of Haydn's compositions, summoned him and engaged him as her singing and keyboard teacher. Unauthenticated miniature attributed to Ludwig Guttenbrunn This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message Haydn's job title under Count Morzin was Kapellmeisterthat is, music director.
He led the count's small orchestra in Unterlukawitz and wrote his first symphonies for this ensemble. Inwith the security of a Kapellmeister position, Haydn married. Haydn and his wife had a completely unhappy marriage,  from which time permitted no escape.
They produced no children, and both took lovers. When Werner died inHaydn was elevated to full Kapellmeister. Haydn had a huge range of responsibilities, including composition, running the orchestra, playing chamber music for and with his patrons, and eventually the mounting of operatic productions. Despite this backbreaking workload, [j] the job was in artistic terms a superb opportunity for Haydn.
In aboutthe prince obtained and began to learn to play the barytonan uncommon musical instrument similar to the bass violbut with a set of plucked sympathetic strings. Haydn was commanded to provide music for the prince to play, and over the next ten years produced about works for this instrument in various ensembles, the most notable of which are the baryton trios. Aroundthe prince abandoned the baryton and took up a new hobby: Haydn served as company director, recruiting and training the singers and preparing and leading the performances.
He wrote several of the operas performed and wrote substitution arias to insert into the operas of other composers. Haydn soon shifted his emphasis in composition to reflect this fewer operas, and more quartets and symphonies and he negotiated with multiple publishers, both Austrian and foreign.
His new employment contract "acted as a catalyst in the next stage in Haydn's career, the achievement of international popularity. By Haydn was in the paradoxical position Haydn also composed in response to commissions from abroad: Haydn wrote to Mrs.
Later on, Haydn wrote to her frequently from London. Her premature death in was a blow to Haydn, and his F minor variations for piano, Hob. According to later testimony by Michael Kelly and others, the two composers occasionally played in string quartets together. Mozart evidently returned the esteem, as seen in his dedication of a set of six quartets, now called the "Haydn" quartetsto his friend.
Following a trend of the time,  Anton sought to economize by dismissing most of the court musicians. Haydn retained a nominal appointment with Anton, at a reduced salary of florins, as well as a florin pension from Nikolaus.
The choice was a sensible one because Haydn was already a very popular composer there. Since the death of Johann Christian Bach inHaydn's music had dominated the concert scene in London; "hardly a concert did not feature a work by him" Jones.
It was the first time that the year-old composer had seen the ocean. Audiences flocked to Haydn's concerts; he augmented his fame and made large profits, thus becoming financially secure. The Hanover Square Roomsprincipal venue of Haydn's performances in London Musically, Haydn's visits to England generated some of his best-known work, including the SurpriseMilitaryDrumroll and London symphonies; the Rider quartet; and the "Gypsy Rondo" piano trio.
The great success of the overall enterprise does not mean that the journeys were free of trouble. Notably, his very first project, the commissioned opera L'anima del filosofo was duly written during the early stages of the trip, but the opera's impresario John Gallini was unable to obtain a license to permit opera performances in the theater he directed, the King's Theatre. Another problem arose from the jealously competitive efforts of a senior, rival orchestra, the Professional Concertswho recruited Haydn's old pupil Ignaz Pleyel as a rival visiting composer; the two composers, refusing to play along with the concocted rivalry, dined together and put each other's symphonies on their concert programs.
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