Hepatitis B can be sexually transmitted either through heterosexual or homosexual relations. surface antibody (sAby or anti-HBs). If this test is positive it means that a person is immune to the hepatitis B virus and does This test is used to show low reproduction of virus a patient is positive if the e antigen test is negative. The relationship between hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody and Alanine Transaminase/blood; Alkaline Phosphatase/blood; Antibodies, Viral/analysis*. clonal antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs); (b) HBcAg and HBeAg, using rabbit of Hepatitis B Core and e Antigens in Relation to Serum Hepatitis B Virus DNA and.
Yet, no systematic analysis of such patients has been performed. The sequences of the HBsAg coding region were analyzed. Twenty patients had positive results for anti-HBs.
This serological status remained stable for 12 months as tested thus far. Importantly, no significant difference in the occurrence of amino acid substitutions within the HBsAg was found in HBV isolates from patients with and without anti-HBs. Purified immunoglobulin fractions from serum samples from patients were reactive to HBsAg but had a lower specific activity, compared with those taken from immunized persons.
No circulating immune complex could be detected in these patients.
HBsAg and anti-HBs with an unmatched specificity coexisted in 4. The presence of anti-HBs was not associated with the appearance of specific HBV mutants in patients with chronic infection. Hepatitis B virus HBV causes acute, self-limiting, and chronic infections in humans [ 1 ]. The antibody response to hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg appears during the late phase of infection. Because of technical limitations, no sequence analysis of HBV isolates in patients was performed in these early studies.
Later reports suggested that the presence of anti-HBs may drive the selection of HBsAg escape mutants [ 13 ]. Frequently, mutant HBV isolates were accompanied by wild-type isolates, forming a mixed viral population in patients [ 81011 ].
Hepatitis B Virus Antigens and Antibodies
Our results indicated clearly that the presence of anti-HBs was not correlated with a higher rate of amino acid substitutions in the HBsAg sequences, as previously speculated. Materials And Methods Patients. From July to Octoberconsecutive Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B from Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, and Changchun were included in our study. Diagnosis of clinical chronic hepatitis B was based on positive results for HBsAg for at least 6 months, increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity at least 2 times the upper limit of normaland positive results for hepatitis B early antigen HBeAgalong with associated symptoms.
Exclusion criteria included decompensated liver disease, previous treatment for chronic hepatitis B, and coinfection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, or HIV.
All patients provided written, informed consent prior to entrance into this study. Purification of IgG fractions from human serum samples. This test if positive means the patient has be exposed to the hepatitis B virus but does not mean immunity or active infection, please refer the two tests above. This is a crude marker of active reproduction and infectivity of the virus. This test is used to show low reproduction of virus a patient is positive if the e antigen test is negative.
This is the genetic code for the virus and is also a blood test If this test is positive, shows that the patient has a very actively reproducing the virus in the body.
Types of hepatitis B infection: Active infection with inflammation immune active: These patients are the most likely to respond to interferon and may spontaneously convert from a state of high viral replication to low or even spontaneous clear the virus from the body and liver.
Silent carrier immunotolerant phase: The best management for such patients is to observe for liver enzyme abnormality and then consider a liver biopsy and therapy. This type of patients is the most common worldwide.
Information on Hepatitis B
Such patients usually acquired the hepatitis B infection at birth or in childhood. These patients have a high risk of liver cancer starting at age If there is no family history of liver cancer and no other cause of liver disease, I recommend ultrasound and AFP annually starting at age This diagnosis is difficult to determine by physical exam and laboratory testing early.
All patients with hepatitis B, as with other causes of liver disease should have a liver biopsy if the liver enzymes are elevated. If cirrhosis is present the risk of liver cancer the most common cancer in the world is times as common as in normal people.