Mark Antony - Wikipedia
In 32 BCE, Octavian had the Senate deprive Antony of his powers Here Mark Antony and Cleopatra's combined force of vessels and. The conflict between Mark Antony and Octavian developed out of alliances whilst Antony established and nurtured his relationship in the east. Get an answer for 'What is the relationship among Antony, Octavius, and is the basic difference between the two funeral orations of Brutus and Mark Antony?.
The feud between Caesar and Pompey erupted into open confrontation by early 49 BC. Upon assuming office in January, Antony immediately summoned a meeting of the Senate to resolve the conflict: Antony then made a new proposal: Caesar would retain only two of his eight legions and the governorship of Illyrium if he was allowed to stand for the Consulship in absentia.
This arrangement ensured his immunity from suit would continue: Though Pompey found the concession satisfactory, Cato and Lentulus refused to back down, with Lentulus even expelling Antony from the Senate meeting by force.
Antony fled Rome, fearing for his life, and returned to Caesar's camp on the banks of the Rubicon Riverthe southern limit of Caesar's lawful command. Under the leadership of Cato and with the tacit support of Pompey, the Senate passed the "final decree" senatus consultum ultimum stripping Caesar of his command and ordering him to return to Rome and stand trial for war crimes. The Senate further declared Caesar a traitor and a public enemy if he did not immediately disband his army.
As Tribune, Antony's person was sacrosanct and therefore it was unlawful to harm him or refuse to recognize his veto. Three days later, on 10 January, Caesar crossed the Rubicon Riverstarting a civil war. Caesar's rapid advance surprised Pompey, who, along with the other chief members of the Optimates, fled Italy for Greece.
After entering Rome, instead of pursuing Pompey, Caesar marched to Spain to defeat Pompeian-loyalists there. Meanwhile, Antony, with the rank of Propraetor despite never having served as Praetorwas installed as governor of Italy and commander of the army, stationed there while Marcus Lepidusone of Caesar's staff officers, ran the provisional administration of Rome itself.
In early 48 BC, he prepared to sail with seven legions to Greece to face Pompey.History Summarized: Augustus Versus Antony
Pompey's forces, however, defeated them and assumed control of the Adriatic Sea along with it. Additionally, the two legions they commanded defected to Pompey. Without their fleet, Caesar lacked the necessary transport ships to cross into Greece with his seven legions.
Instead, he sailed with only two and placed Antony in command of the remaining five at Brundisium with instructions to join him as soon as he was able. Antony, however, managed to trick Libo into pursuing some decoy ships, causing Libo's squadron to be trapped and attacked. Most of Libo's fleet managed to escape, but several of his troops were trapped and captured.
The Battle of Pharsalus: Antony commanded the left wing of Caesar's army. During the Greek campaign, Plutarch records Antony was Caesar's top general and second to only him in reputation. With food sources running low, Caesar, in July, ordered a nocturnal assault on Pompey's camp, but Pompey's larger forces pushed back the assault.
Though an indecisive result, the victory was a tactical win for Pompey. Pompey, however, did not order a counter-assault on Caesar's camp, allowing Caesar to retreat unhindered. Caesar would later remark the civil war would have ended that day if Pompey had only attacked him. Assuming a defensive position at the plain of PharsalusCaesar's army prepared for pitched battle with Pompey's, which outnumbered his own two to one.
Though the civil war had not ended at Pharsulus, the battle marked the pinnacle of Caesar's power and effectively ended the Republic. After Pompey's defeat, most of the Senate defected to Caesar, including many of the soldiers who had fought under Pompey.
- What Caused the Conflict Between Octavian & Antony?
The young Cleopatra became Caesar's mistress and bore him a son, Caesarion. Caesar's actions further strengthened Roman control over the already Roman-dominated kingdom. The chief cause of his political challenges concerned debt forgiveness. One of the Tribunes for 47 BC, Publius Cornelius Dolabellaa former general under Pompey, proposed a law which would have canceled all outstanding debts. Antony opposed the law for political and personal reasons: When Dolabella sought to enact the law by force and seized the Roman ForumAntony responded by unleashing his soldiers upon the assembled mass.
Antony's violent reaction had caused Rome to fall into a state of anarchy.
Caesar sought to mend relations with the populist leader; he was elected to a third term as Consul for 46 BC, but proposed the Senate should transfer the consulship to Dolabella.
When Antony protested, Caesar was forced to withdraw the motion out of shame. Later, Caesar sought to exercise his prerogatives as Dictator and directly proclaim Dolabella as Consul instead. After returning victorious from North Africa, Caesar was appointed Dictator for ten years and brought Cleopatra and their son to Rome.
Conflict Between Mark Antony and Octavian
Antony again remained in Rome while Caesar, in 45 BC, sailed to Spain to defeat the final opposition to his rule. When Caesar returned in late 45 BC, the civil war was over. During this time Antony married his third wife, Fulvia. Following the scandal with Dolabella, Antony had divorced his second wife and quickly married Fulvia.
Assassination of Julius Caesar Ides of March[ edit ] Whatever conflicts existed between himself and Caesar, Antony remained faithful to Caesar, ensuring their estrangement did not last long. Caesar planned a new invasion of Parthia and desired to leave Antony in Italy to govern Rome in his name.
The reconciliation came soon after Antony rejected an offer by Gaius Treboniusone of Caesar's generals, to join a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. The festival was held in honor of Lupathe she-wolf who suckled the infant orphans Romulus and Remusthe founders of Rome. Caesar had enacted a number of constitutional reforms which centralized effectively all political powers within his own hands.
He was granted further honors, including a form of semi-official cultwith Antony as his high priest. Caesar's political rivals feared these reforms were his attempts at transforming the Republic into an open monarchy. During the festival's activities, Antony publicly offered Caesar a diademwhich Caesar refused. The event presented a powerful message: By refusing it, Caesar demonstrated he had no intention of making himself King of Rome.
Antony's motive for such actions is not clear and it is unknown if he acted with Caesar's prior approval or on his own. A group of Senators resolved to kill Caesar to prevent him from seizing the throne.
Octavia | wife of Mark Antony | kinenbicounter.info
Although Cassius was "the moving spirit" in the plot, winning over the chief assassins to the cause of tyrannicideBrutus, with his family's history of deposing Rome's kings, became their leader.
Antony was supposed to attend with Caesar, but was waylaid at the door by one of the plotters and prevented from intervening. According to the Greek historian Plutarchas Caesar arrived at the Senate, Lucius Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother.
Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Roman historian Eutropiusaround 60 or more men participated in the assassination. Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died from the blood loss attributable to multiple stab wounds. When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome.
The conspirators, who styled themselves the Liberatores "The Liberators"had barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill for their own safety. Though they believed Caesar's death would restore the Republic, Caesar had been immensely popular with the Roman middle and lower classeswho became enraged upon learning a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony, as the sole Consul, soon took the initiative and seized the state treasury. CalpurniaCaesar's widow, presented him with Caesar's personal papers and custody of his extensive property, clearly marking him as Caesar's heir and leader of the Caesarian faction.
Lepidus wanted to storm the Capitol, but Antony preferred a peaceful solution as a majority of both the Liberators and Caesar's own supporters preferred a settlement over civil war.
Caesar's assassins would be pardoned of their crimes and, in return, all of Caesar's actions would be ratified. Antony also agreed to accept the appointment of his rival Dolabella as his Consular colleague to replace Caesar. However, what alarmed the senate enormously was his intent on being buried in Egypt as opposed to Rome. Therefore, it is additionally arguable that Cleopatra aligned herself with Mark Antony in an attempt to safeguard her own control of Egypt.
Through the available evidence, it is obvious to deduce that regardless of his youth, Octavian excelled at the same talents which his adoptive father and great-uncle had; coercion, oratory and networking with a selfish purpose.
Such qualities made Octavian a supremely talented statesman who served himself above all others. Octavian was willing to appear to support the republic to gain the support of the senate, and for that purpose alone. Although Octavian ultimately defeated Mark Antony, their failed alliance undoubtedly initiated the conflict and gave Octavian insight into the nature of his enemy, as well as acting as a precursor to their eventual conflict.
The Battle of Actium served as the culmination of the tensions between Mark Antony and Octavian, greatly influencing the importance of their conflict as it was at this naval battle that the victor was decided.
Such an act was portrayed by Octavian as an insult to Rome as well as to the Caesarians and himself personally. Naturally, when Octavian declared war on Cleopatra, he did so with the hope and knowledge that Antony would come to her aid, initiating what has been named the Final War of the Roman Republic, with the Battle of Actium as the combat theatre see appendix 1.
The battle itself was rather anticlimactic as Octavian with the assistance of his general and friend Agrippa dominated the battle.
A similar situation occurred on land. However, it is doubtful if any Romans would have even been aware of this milestone, as Octavian, his faction and patronage represented such an enormous demonstration of continuity that details were of no concern to the populous. The Augustan principate that shadowed this evolution demonstrated a means of supervising the respublica which had previously been impossible to determine.
It can be argued that this evolution, or collapse, of the republic had been amassing itself over an entire century prior to the Battle of Actium. Instead of disappearing, the traditional governmental devices of the republic eventually became indispensable portions of the Augustan principate.
To this end, it can be argued strongly that the battle of Actium was the culmination of the conflict between Mark Antony and Octavian. This event severely impacted and influenced the eventual history of Rome, and with the conflict between the men and subsequent battle, history may have taken a dramatically different course.
Evidently, this emphasizes the magnitude of importance of the conflict between Antony and Octavian, as the events and the result that unfolded at the battle of Actium had far reaching effects on the political and military structure of Rome, in addition to its history and consequently, that of the world. Octavian was bestowed the name Augustus, and termed himself as princeps to avoid the impression of royalty. This alone would have been enough to doom him, discrediting him forever in the eyes of his peers.
The subsequent suicide of Cleopatra and execution of Ptolemy Caesar ended the three hundred year old Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt. The wealth of Egypt was utilised by Augustus to further his successes in Rome. Augustus now too controlled all the Roman legions throughout the Empire in addition to being granted tribucian sacrosanctity.