Moldova - Government and society | kinenbicounter.info
Moldova country profile, with map and flag of Moldova; geography, history, politics, government, economy, population, culture, religion, languages, and largest. The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country between Romania and Ukraine . Bessarabia has always been a multiethnic region, and ethnic relations .. and Gennadi Teciuc have demonstrated the potential and quality of Moldovan art. Culture in Moldova's external relations is thus going through deep Theatre, the Music and Fine Arts Academy, the National Museum, the.
Buildings and a church line a street in Chisinau. The city architecture was mostly constructed by the Russians in the nineteenth century. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Orthodox Christian baptisms, funerals, and weddings are accompanied by large gatherings where several meat and vegetable dishes, desserts, and cakes as well as wine are served. Homemade vodka and brandy also are offered. At Easter, a special bread, pascais baked in every household, and eggs are painted in various colors.
Families go to the graveyard to celebrate their dead kin; they eat food at the graves while drinking wine and offering it to each other as they remember the dead. The national currency is the leu bani. Besides gypsum and very small gas and oil reserves, the country has no natural resources and is totally dependent on energy imports, mainly from Russia. Moldova has experienced a sharp downturn in its economy in the last ten years.
Inthe gross domestic product GDP was 35 percent of the level, and the state is unable to pay pensions and salaries on time. As a result, more people produce food and other necessities for themselves now than in the s.
This includes virtually the entire rural population and many city dwellers who own small gardens in the countryside. The parallel economy is estimated to account for 20 to 40 percent of the GDP. Land Tenure and Property. During the Soviet period, there was no private land, only state-owned collective farms.
Sinceas part of the transition to a market economy, privatization of land as well as houses and apartments has taken place.
However, the process is still under way and has faced fierce resistance from so-called agroindustrial complexes. There are mixed as well as specialized markets for food, flowers, spare parts, and construction materials. This "market economy" clearly outsells the regular shops.
Besides foodstuffs, which are partially home-grown, all products are imported. These types of commercial activities are flourishing because of market liberalization and the economic downturn. Many educated specialists find it easier to earn money through commercial activities than by practicing their professions.
Industry is concentrated in the food-processing sector, wine making, and tobacco. Other fields include electronic equipment, machinery, textiles, and shoes. The small heavy industry sector includes a metallurgical plant in Transdniestria that produces high-quality steel. Russia and other Commonwealth of Independent States CIS countries accounted for 69 percent of exports and 58 percent of imports in Exports are mainly agroindustrial products 72 percentespecially wine, but also include shoes and textiles 12 percent.
The main import goods are mineral products 31 percentmachinery and electronic equipment 19 percentand chemical products 12 percent. To realign foreign trade away from Russia and toward Western European and other countries, Moldova has constructed an oil terminal on the Danube and is seeking closer economic ties with Romania and the European Union.
It is expected to join the World Trade Organization.
Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Large landowners boyars disappeared after the establishment of Soviet power. There is an emergent class of high-ranking officials A worker supervising bottling at a winery in Chisinau.
Wine is a symbolic drink used to honor the host at a meal.
Moldova PM rules out reunification with Romania | World news | The Guardian
Social stratification is determined mainly by economic and political power. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, those who had higher positions in the government tended to be Moldovans, while Russians dominated the private sector. Urban workers have maintained their rural connections and grow fruit and vegetables on small plots of land in the towns. Symbols of Social Stratification. Newly built ornamented houses and villas, cars especially Western cars with tinted windowscellular telephones, and fashionable clothes are the most distinguishing symbols of wealth.
Consumer goods brought from abroad Turkey, Romania, Germany function as status symbols in cities and rural areas. Moldova is a democratic and unitary republic. A special status is envisaged for the Transdniestrian region. The political system is mixed parliamentary-presidential, with the parliament one hundred one representatives and president both directly elected for a four-year period.
The prime minister is appointed by the president only after the minister and his or her cabinet have received a vote of confidence from the parliamentary majority.
The rights of the president to dissolve the parliament are very restricted. Some executive powers are vested in the president's hands: The delicate balance of power between parliament, government, and president is held to be responsible for the relatively high level of democracy as well as the blocking of important reform projects.
Consequently, there have been discussions aimed at strengthening the powers of the president. Judicial powers are vested in the courts.
Leadership and Political Officials. Patrimonial structures and the Orthodox tradition of godfatherhood have strong political implications. Personal networks established over the years help people gain political posts, but such contacts also make them responsible for redistributing resources to the people who have backed them.
Although kinship has a certain influence on these personal networks, relationships established in other ways during education and earlier work may be more important.
Today's political forces have their roots either in the Moldovan Communist Party or in the national movement of the s. The national movement started with the creation of the Alexe Mateevici Cultural Club in as an intellectual opposition group. In less than a year, it evolved into a broad mass movement known as the Popular Front of Moldova.
Although the party system has experienced striking fluctuations in the last ten years, the main political forces have in essence remained the same.
The Communist Party, whose place was taken temporarily by the Agrarian Democratic Party, is still one of the strongest political players. It has a mixed ethnic background and is backed mainly by the agroindustrial complexes. It is opposed to privatization and other reforms and strongly favors the idea of "Moldovanism. Both derive directly from the Moldovan national movement and have no former communists in their ranks.
The Front favors unification with Romania and advocates liberal market reforms and democratization. The Party of Democratic Forces also favors stronger ties with Romania and the West but has abandoned the idea of unification; it too blends market reforms with social democratic ideas.
The former president, Mircea Snegur —a previous Communist Party secretary and the "father" of Moldovan independence, has been joined in his Party for Rebirth and Reconciliation by other former communists who switched to the national movement early on. Petru Lucinschi, who was elected president inheld high posts in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and has extensive, well-established connections among the social-democrat-oriented former political elite.
Unlike Snegur, he and the parties associated with him are widely trusted by non-Moldovan voters. In Moldovan politics everybody knows each other and personal interests, sympathies, and antipathies as well as tactical reshuffles play an important role.
Social Problems and Control. The economic crisis resulted in an increase in poverty, theft, and petty and large-scale racketeering. Illegal cultivation of opium poppies and cannabis takes place on a limited basis, with both being trafficked to other CIS countries and Western Europe.
In the villages, where people relate to one another in a less anonymous way, hearsay and gossip are effective tools of social control. The army consists of 8, ground and air defense troops and has no tanks. As a landlocked country, Moldova has no navy, and after it sold nearly its entire fleet of MIG fighters to the United States init was left practically without an air force.
Moldova PM rules out reunification with Romania
Although it is a neutral country and the constitution rules out the stationing of foreign military forces on Moldovan soil, Russian troops are still stationed in Transdniestria.
Social Welfare and Change Programs A system of social security covering unemployment benefits, health care, and pensions for the elderly and the disabled as well as assistance for low-income families has been set up. However, the level of social benefits is very low, and they are not paid in time because of the socioeconomic crisis. National and international nongovernmental organizations NGOs aid orphans and street children.
Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Several international NGOs are active, especially in the fields of human rights and development.
There are several local NGOs, most of which are small and inefficient. NGOs are frequently politically biased and get involved in political campaigns. Many NGO activists often see their organizations principally as vehicles for the pursuit of their own interests. Women in both urban and rural areas carry the burden of domestic duties and child care in addition to working outside the home.
As a result of tradition and economic necessity, women engage in domestic food-processing activities in the summer to provide home-canned food for the winter months.
Culture of Moldova - Wikipedia
The Relative Status of Women and Men. Although men seemingly have more decision-making power in the public and private spheres, women act as the organizers of daily and ritual life. They organize social gatherings, gift-giving relations, and the infrastructure of numerous official and semiofficial events. There are no moral restrictions on women's participation in public life, although Women at a market in Chisinau.
Many Moldovan women work both inside and outside of the home. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. When a young couple decides to marry, it is not unusual for the girl to go to her boyfriend's house and stay there. The next day her parents are informed about this, and the families come together to agree on the marriage. It can take a couple of months before the civil and religious wedding ceremonies are held. Divorce is common, and many women have to earn a living on their own after being abandoned by their husbands without the marriage being officially dissolved.
Newlyweds usually live together with the groom's parents until they can build a house in the village or rent an apartment in town. In the villages, there is a general rule of ultimogeniture the youngest son and his family live with the parents, and he inherits the contents of the household.
Inheritance is regulated by law. Children inherit equally from their parents, although males may inherit the house of their parents if they live in the same household. Relatives support each other in performing agricultural and other tasks as well as ceremonial obligations. The godparenthood system regulates the mutual obligations between the parties. Godparents are responsible for the children they baptize throughout life-cycle rituals, especially marriage and the building of a house.
Godparenthood is inherited between generations; however, it is also common for this role to be negotiated independently of previous ties. Babies are taken care of by their mothers and grandmothers. In villages, babies are wrapped in blankets during the very early months, and cloth diapers are used.
Toddlers walk around freely, and their clothes are changed when they wet themselves. Child Rearing and Education. Children generally grow up close to their grandparents, who teach them songs and fairy tales.
Girls are expected to help their mothers from an early age and also take care of smaller siblings. A good child is expected to be God-fearing and shy and does not participate in adult conversations without being asked to do so.
A few universities remain from the Soviet period, together with about fifty technical and vocational schools. As a result of economic difficulties, people sometimes complete higher education in their late thirties, after establishing a family.
The College of Wine Culture is a popular educational institution that offers high-quality training. Etiquette It is proper to drink at least a symbolic amount of wine during a meal or in a ritual context to honor the host and toast the health of the people present. Occasionally in villages, toasting with the left hand may not be regarded as proper. It is improper to blow one's nose at the table.
Smoking in private homes is an uncommon practice; both hosts and guests usually go outside or onto the balcony to smoke. In villages, it is highly improper for women to smoke in public. People usually acknowledge passersby in the villages irrespective of previous acquaintance. Workers at a ceramic factory in Marginea.
The majority of the population, including non-Moldovans, are Orthodox Christians about 98 percent. Jews have engaged in religious activities after independence with a newly opened synagogue and educational institutions. There is an ongoing debate about returning to the Bucharest Patriarchate. Priests play an important role in the performance of ritual activities. In the villages, there are female healers who use Christian symbols and practices to treat the sick.
Rituals and Holy Places. The Orthodox calendar dictates rules and celebrations throughout the year, such as Christmas, Easter, and several saints' days. Some of the rules include fasting or avoiding meat and meat fat as well as restrictions on washing, bathing, and working at particular times. Baptisms, weddings, and funerals are the most important life-cycle rituals and are combined with church attendance and social gatherings. Easter is celebrated in the church and by visiting the graveyards of kin.
Candles are an inseparable part of rituals; people buy candles when they enter the church and light them in front of the icons or during rituals. Death and the Afterlife. The dead are dressed in their best clothes. Ideally, the corpse is watched over for three days and visited by relatives and friends. If possible, the ninth, twentieth, and fortieth days; the third, sixth, and ninth months; and the year after the death are commemorated. However, this usually depends on the religiosity and financial resources of the people concerned.
Medicine and Health Care Modern medicine is widely used. Health care is poor because of the state of the economy. The central portion of the country enjoys long, warm summers.
Neither the Moldovan government nor the international community has recognized the independent republic of Transdniestria Pridnestrovie; Transnistriawhose name is derived from its location beyond on the eastern side of the Dniester River.
The self-proclaimed republic also has its own flag and anthem. Russia maintained a force of some 1, troops in Transdniestria.
Foreign relations of Moldova
At a more local level, Moldova is administered by elected town and village councils and mayors; their activities are coordinated by district councils, which also are elected. Town hall, Tiraspol, Moldv. Following independence a variety of political parties emerged, many of them later to divide or to merge with other parties or coalitions.
More than 95 percent voted in favour of continued independence.
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- Culture of Moldova
Moldovans aged 18 or older are eligible to vote in elections. In elections in the s and early s, about three-fifths of eligible voters cast ballots. Health and welfare Since the mids the quality and availability of health care in Moldova have improved.
In the Moldovan government established social service programs to supplement the monthly income of the average citizen during the transition from a command to a market economy. These programs were designed to preserve and strengthen the social safety net put in place during the Soviet period. The Social Assistance Fund supplies the needy with medical payments and housing and food subsidies. The Social Security Fund provides pensions for workers, invalids, and soldiers, assists workers during illness or temporary disability, and aids the unemployed.
Education Significant changes occurred in Moldovan society during the Soviet era. Illiteracy was eradicatedand, as in other Soviet republics, emphasis was placed on technical education in order to satisfy the steadily growing needs of agriculture and industry for specialists and a highly skilled workforce.
Before the republic had only a few institutions of higher education and teacher-training colleges, as well as a theological seminary and an agricultural institute. Since then several institutions of higher education and numerous specialized middle schools have been established. They all provide instruction in Romanian and Russian, and since the early s the Moldovan language has increasingly been introduced into the educational system.
A vigorous program of Moldovan instruction in primary and secondary schools was implemented in In addition, dozens of research centres in the fields of viticulturehorticulture, beet growing, grain cultivation, and wine making have been set up, and Moldovan scientists have won international acclaim in these fields.
Cultural life Cultural milieu The historical ties between Bessarabia and Romania and the ethnic kinship of Moldovans and Romanians are still reflected in the culture of Moldova. The state assumed responsibility for the content and direction of all cultural and intellectual life. The theatre, motion pictures, television, and printed matter were subject to censorship and close ideological scrutiny. Until the waning days of Soviet influence, private initiative in cultural endeavours was rare.
Daily life and social customs As a mainly Eastern Orthodox country, Moldova celebrates Christian holidays. Its various ethnic groups tend to follow the customs and eat the foods of their own nationality. Moldovans observe a calendar of planting and harvest fairs that feature traditional dancing, singing, and folk arts.
Moldovans have also embraced contemporary styles such as rockpopand hip-hopand Moldova has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since Moldovan literature experienced the vicissitudes of Soviet literature generally during the late s and early s. Building socialism and creating the new Soviet citizen were the dominant themes, and socialist goals prevailed over aesthetic considerations.
Characteristic of these trends were the early prose and poetry of Emilian Bucov and Andrei Lupan, who followed the principles of Socialist Realism ; later they and younger writers diversified their techniques and subject matter.
The work of contemporary essayist and novelist Vitalie Ciobanu is well known in Moldova. During the period of Soviet rule, the state gave particular attention to the expansion of cultural opportunities. Numerous amateur theatres and musical and art groups were supported. The state also attempted to preserve the rich heritage of Moldovan folk art and music through such ensembles as the Doina choir and Zhok popular ballet and through local and national museums.
Economic changes and urbanizationhowever, undermined traditional society and curtailed artistic creativity. Moreover, the economic deprivations and hardships since independence have left the average Moldovan little time for cultural interests, and the national budget deficits have left few governmental resources with which to subsidize cultural activities. In Moldova joined Creative Europe, an EU program designed to support the efforts of creative and cultural organizations with increased access to funding, training, and networking opportunities.
Games are played throughout the country by organized local teams that compete each year for the national Moldovan Cup. Wrestling has become significant, made popular by Moldovan world champion Lukman Jabrailov.
Judo, archeryand athletics track and field are also popular. Other favourite sports are rugby, tennis, martial arts, cycling, boxingvolleyball, and canoeing.
Chess is a common pastime. In past years ethnic Moldovans have competed on the Olympic teams of both the Soviet Union and Romania. At the Games in Barcelona, the country participated as part of the Unified Team. Moldova competed for the first time as an independent country at the Games in Lillehammer, Norway.
Because Moldova lacks both mountains and a seashore, many recreational opportunities are limited. Media and publishing The Moldovan constitution protects freedom of expression in the press; nevertheless, Moldovan media have received widespread criticism for being overly influenced by the government, and there have been occasional incidents of politically motivated prosecution of journalists.
The initial outpouring of publications at the time of independence has been considerably reduced in the years since, largely as a result of economic pressures. Most publications that started as dailies have cut back production schedules. All broadcasting activities have been consolidated under the State Radio and Television Company of Moldova, which was founded in History Bessarabia —the name often given to the region of historical Moldavia between the Dniester and Prut rivers—has a long and stormy history.
Part of Scythia in the 1st millennium bce, Bessarabia later came marginally under the control of the Roman Empire as part of Dacia. Lying on one of the principal land routes into Europeit was invaded by successive waves of barbarians, and the area had many masters.
Gradually, under varying influences, the Vlach or Romanian nationality developed. Part of the area came under the rule of Kievan Rus between the 10th and 12th centuries ce and later passed to the Galician princes.
From to the 14th century Moldavia was vassal to the Tatars. The southern area, which originally fell into the Walachian sphere, probably took its name from the Basarab dynasty. The southern part of Bessarabia was again detached and organized by the Turks into two sanjaks districts of the Ottoman Empire.
The Russian administration — Inin the Treaty of AdrianopleRussia pushed the frontier south to include the Danube delta.