Navajo - Wikipedia
They all have in common that they all believe in kachinas, have ceremonies. Though the Navajos and Apaches have same growth ceremonies. The Navajo and the Apache are closely related tribes, descended from a single group that scholars believe migrated from Canada. Both Navajo and Apache. The Navajo were a predacious tribe of some 50 clans who, frequently with their Apache allies, regularly pillaged the Pueblo and later the Spanish and Mexican.
To some historians, this implies the Apaches moved into their current Southwestern homelands in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Other historians note that Coronado reported that Pueblo women and children had often been evacuated by the time his party attacked their dwellings, and that he saw some dwellings had been recently abandoned as he moved up the Rio Grande. This might indicate the semi-nomadic Southern Athabaskan had advance warning about his hostile approach and evaded encounter with the Spanish.
Archaeologists are finding ample evidence of an early proto-Apache presence in the Southwestern mountain zone in the 15th century and perhaps earlier. The Apache presence on both the Plains and in the mountainous Southwest indicate that the people took multiple early migration routes. Apache Wars and Apache—Mexico Wars In general, the recently arrived Spanish colonists, who settled in villages, and Apache bands developed a pattern of interaction over a few centuries.
Both raided and traded with each other. Records of the period seem to indicate that relationships depended upon the specific villages and specific bands that were involved with each other. For example, one band might be friends with one village and raid another. When war happened, the Spanish would send troops; after a battle both sides would "sign a treaty," and both sides would go home. Geronimo The traditional and sometimes treacherous relationships continued between the villages and bands with the independence of Mexico in By Mexico had placed a bounty on Apache scalps see scalpingbut certain villages were still trading with some bands.
Byauthorities in horse-rich Durango would claim that Indian raids mostly Comanche and Apache in their state had taken nearly 6, lives, abducted people, and forced the abandonment of settlements over the previous 20 years. An uneasy peace between the Apache and the new citizens of the United States held until the s.
An influx of gold miners into the Santa Rita Mountains led to conflict with the Apache. This period is sometimes called the Apache Wars. United States' concept of a reservation had not been used by the Spanish, Mexicans or other Apache neighbors before.
Reservations were often badly managed, and bands that had no kinship relationships were forced to live together. No fences existed to keep people in or out. It was not uncommon for a band to be given permission to leave for a short period of time.
Other times a band would leave without permission, to raid, return to their homeland to forage, or to simply get away. The military usually had forts nearby. Their job was keeping the various bands on the reservations by finding and returning those who left.
The reservation policies of the United States produced conflict and war with the various Apache bands who left the reservations for almost another quarter century. Warfare between the Apache peoples and Euro-Americans has led to a stereotypical focus on certain aspects of Apache cultures.
These have often been distorted through misunderstanding of their cultures, as noted by anthropologist Keith Basso: Of the hundreds of peoples that lived and flourished in native North America, few have been so consistently misrepresented as the Apacheans of Arizona and New Mexico. Glorified by novelists, sensationalized by historians, and distorted beyond credulity by commercial film makers, the popular image of 'the Apache' — a brutish, terrifying semi-human bent upon wanton death and destruction — is almost entirely a product of irresponsible caricature and exaggeration.
Indeed, there can be little doubt that the Apache has been transformed from a native American into an American legend, the fanciful and fallacious creation of a non-Indian citizenry whose inability to recognize the massive treachery of ethnic and cultural stereotypes has been matched only by its willingness to sustain and inflate them.
At the orders of the Indian Commissioner, L. The trek resulted in the loss of several hundred lives. The people were held there in internment for 25 years while white settlers took over their land. Only a few hundred ever returned to their lands. At the San Carlos reservation, the Buffalo soldiers of the 9th Cavalry Regiment - replacing the 8th Cavalry who were being stationed to Texas - guarded the Apaches from Defeat Most United States' histories of this era report that the final defeat of an Apache band took place when 5, US troops forced Geronimo 's group of 30 to 50 men, women and children to surrender on September 4,at Skeleton CanyonArizona.
Many books were written on the stories of hunting and trapping during the late 19th century. Many of these stories involve Apache raids and the failure of agreements with Americans and Mexicans. In the post-war era, the US government arranged for Apache children to be taken from their families for adoption by white Americans in assimilation programs.
An extended family generally consisted of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, their married daughters, their married daughters' husbands, and their married daughters' children. Thus, the extended family is connected through a lineage of women who live together that is, matrilocal residenceinto which men may enter upon marriage leaving behind his parents' family. When a daughter was married, a new dwelling was built nearby for her and her husband.
Among the Navajo, residence rights are ultimately derived from a head mother. Although the Western Apache usually practiced matrilocal residence, sometimes the eldest son chose to bring his wife to live with his parents after marriage. All tribes practiced sororate and levirate marriages.
Apache Indian girl carrying an olla a water basket on her head, ca. The degree of avoidance differed in different Apache groups. The most elaborate system was among the Chiricahua, where men had to use indirect polite speech toward and were not allowed to be within visual sight of the wife's female relatives, whom he had to avoid.
His female Chiricahua relatives through marriage also avoided him. Several extended families worked together as a "local group", which carried out certain ceremonies, and economic and military activities.
Political control was mostly present at the local group level. Local groups were headed by a chiefa male who had considerable influence over others in the group due to his effectiveness and reputation. The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apache cultures.
The office was not hereditaryand the position was often filled by members of different extended families. The chief's leadership was only as strong as he was evaluated to be—no group member was ever obliged to follow the chief.
The Western Apache criteria for evaluating a good chief included: Many Apache peoples joined together several local groups into " bands ". Band organization was strongest among the Chiricahua and Western Apache, while among the Lipan and Mescalero, it was weak. The Navajo did not organize local groups into bands, perhaps because of the requirements of the sheepherding economy. However, the Navajo did have "the outfit", a group of relatives that was larger than the extended family, but not as large as a local group community or a band.
On the larger level, the Western Apache organized bands into what Grenville Goodwin called "groups". He reported five groups for the Western Apache: The Jicarilla grouped their bands into " moieties ", perhaps influenced by the example of the northeastern Pueblo. The Western Apache and Navajo also had a system of matrilineal " clans " that were organized further into phratries perhaps influenced by the western Pueblo. The notion of " tribe " in Apache cultures is very weakly developed; essentially it was only a recognition "that one owed a modicum of hospitality to those of the same speech, dress, and customs.
For example, the Lipan once fought against the Mescalero. Kinship systems The Apache tribes have two distinctly different kinship term systems: The Western Apache system differs slightly from the other two systems, and it has some similarities to the Navajo system.
The Navajo system is more divergent among the four, having similarities with the Chiricahua-type system. The Lipan and Plains Apache systems are very similar. Furthermore, the grandparent terms are reciprocal, that is, a grandparent will use the same term to refer to their grandchild in that relationship. Chiricahua cousins are not distinguished from siblings through kinship terms.
Thus, the same word will refer to either a sibling or a cousin there are not separate terms for parallel-cousin and cross-cousin. Additionally, the terms are used according to the sex of the speaker unlike the English terms brother and sister: Two different words are used for each parent according to sex: Likewise, there are two words for a parent's child according to sex: A parent's siblings are classified together regardless of sex: Jicarilla Unlike the Chiricahua system, the Jicarilla have only two terms for grandparents according to sex: They do not have separate terms for maternal or paternal grandparents.
The terms are also used of a grandparent's siblings according to sex. These terms are not reciprocal. There is a single word for grandchild regardless of sex: There are two terms for each parent.
These terms also refer to that parent's same-sex sibling: Additionally, there are two terms for a parent's opposite-sex sibling depending on sex: Two terms are used for same-sex and opposite-sex siblings. These terms are also used for parallel-cousins: These two terms can also be used for cross-cousins.American southwest evidence of Reptilian Alien Race
There are also three sibling terms based on the age relative to the speaker: Additionally, there are separate words for cross-cousins: A parent's child is classified with their same-sex sibling's or same-sex cousin's child: There are different words for an opposite-sex sibling's child: Housing Frame of Apache wickiup All people in the Apache tribe lived in one of three types of houses.
The first of which is the teepeefor those who lived in the plains. Another type of housing is the wickiupan 8-foot-tall 2. If a family member lived in a wickiup and they died, the wickiup would be burned. The final housing is the hoganan earthen structure in the desert area that was good for cool keeping in the hot weather of northern Mexico. Below is a description of Chiricahua wickiups recorded by anthropologist Morris Opler: The home in which the family lives is made by the women and is ordinarily a circular, dome-shaped brush dwelling, with the floor at ground level.
It is seven feet high at the center and approximately eight feet in diameter. To build it, long fresh poles of oak or willow are driven into the ground or placed in holes made with a digging stick.
These poles, which form the framework, are arranged at one-foot intervals and are bound together at the top with yucca-leaf strands. Over them a thatching of bundles of big bluestem grass or bear grass is tied, shingle style, with yucca strings. A smoke hole opens above a central fireplace. InFort Defiance was erected in Navajo country.
The Americans also attempted to assign the Navajo to a reservation, but they refused.
Apache - Wikipedia
InManuelito, a Navajo chief, discovered 60 head of his livestock shot by U. Outraged, he confronted the commander at Fort Defiance and told him the land belonged to him and his people, not to the soldiers.
Soldiers from the fort, augmented by paid Zuni warriors, torched Manuelito's fields and village. The chief then resolved to drive the soldiers off the land and commenced to rally other Navajo leaders for war. Inmore than 1, Navajos attacked Fort Defiance. They nearly overran it, but superior gunfire forced a retreat. This would lead to the U. Army 's policy of "total war" against the Navajos. Carson drove the Navajo from their lands by destroying their means of subsistence, using his "Scorched Earth Policy.
Thousands went into hiding in the deep redoubt of Canyon de Chelly. By winter, Carson's men erected a blockade at the canyon entrance, fired at anyone trying to leave, and in Marchrounded up thousands of starving natives.