Duck's Phase Model Of Relationship Breakdown AQA Psychology
Many people view relationship breakdown as a one-off event that just happens Evaluation of Duck's Phase Model This strengthens the claims made by the model and highlights the application of the theory to everyday relationships. does not necessarily describe how break-up happens in real life, weakening the . Outline and Evaluate research into the breakdown of romantic relationships In another theory Duck proposed 3 reasons as to why relationships breakdown. AO1. Duck's model sees that a relationship breakdown occurs through a series of stages if one partner is dissatisfied in the relationship; Duck.
Also the samples used in much research into the breakdown of relationships consist of undergraduates. As a result we can question the validity of some of the findings of such research. In another theory Duck proposed 3 reasons as to why relationships breakdown.The Psychology of The Breakdown of Relationships PSYA3
One of these is a lack of skills. A partner may lack the interpersonal skills to make the relationship mutually satisfying. They may be a poor conversationalist; poor at indicating their interest in their partner, or their interactions with other people may be generally unrewarding. Another cause of relationship breakdown is a lack of stimulation. In some circumstances, relationships may become strained due to maintenance difficulties.
One major reason for relationship breakdowns is that one or both the partners have an affair. Social skills have been found to be important to relationships. This demonstrates the importance of social skills in relationships which will make the relationship less likely to break down. Long distance relationships can be the cause of maintenance difficulties. In contrast, this may be partly due to the increased access to technology which allows long-distance partners to communicate fully which makes relationships less likely to breakdown.
The rats quickly learnt to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box. This suggests that negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated. Applications Behaviorism has increased our understanding of the causes of phobias and attachment.
It has also given rise to therapies such as systematic desensitisation and token economy. Evaluation AO3 Behaviorism has experimental support: Pavlov showed that classical conditioning leads to learning by association. It introduced the scientific methods to psychology.
Laboratory experiments were used with high control of extraneous variables. This gave psychology more credibility.
Many of the experiments carried out were done on animals; we are different cognitively and physiologically, humans have different social norms and moral values these mediate the effects of the environment therefore we might behave differently from animals so the laws and principles derived from these experiments might apply more to animals than to humans.
It has practical applications for example systematic desensitisation based on classical conditioning is used in the treatment of phobias.
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Classical and operant conditioning have also been used to explain attachment. It does not explain important aspects of human behavior such as memory and problem solving as these are internal mental events which cannot be observed.
It does not take into account biological factors such as the role of neurotransmitters, for example a low level of serotonin can give rise to depression or high level of dopamine is involved in OCD. It sees people as passive in their learning with little conscious thoughts influencing their behavior; other approaches recognise the importance of mental events in the learning process. It neglects the influence of free will as it argues that our behavior is the result of previous conditioning.
Skinner argues that free will is an illusion. Sponsored Content Learning Approach: Social Learning Theory AO1 Bandura agreed with the behaviorists that behavior is learnt through experience however he proposed a different mechanism than conditioning.
This theory focuses not only on the behavior itself but also on the mental processes involved in learning so it is not a pure behaviorist theory. The individual needs to pay attention to the behavior and its consequences and form a mental representation of the behavior. Storing the observed behavior in LTM where it can stay for a long period of time. Imitation is not always immediate.
The individual must be able have the ability and skills to reproduce the observed behavior. Individuals must expect to receive the same positive reinforcements vicarious reinforcement for imitating the observed behavior that they have seen the model receiving.
Imitation is more likely to occur if the model the person who performs the behavior is positively reinforced. This is called vicarious reinforcement. Imitation is also more likely if we identify with the model. We see them as sharing some characteristics with us i. The Bobo doll study - Bandura et al.
It was a lab experiment. American children, 36 boys and 36 girls aged between years old. Then the children were taken to a room with some attractive toys but were told not to play with the toys aggression arousal. Then the children were taken individually in a room containing a bobo doll, non-aggressive toys like pencils and plastic farm animals and aggressive toys like a hammer and a pistol.
The children who had observed the aggressive model group 1 were more aggressive than the children from the other two groups. Group 1 imitated specific aggressive acts that were displayed by the model. Boys imitated more physically aggressive acts than girls.
Describe and evaluate Duck's phase model of relationship breakdown
There was no difference in the verbal aggression between boys and girls. This supports SLT as it shows that children imitate behavior of role model even if the behavior is aggressive.
Bandura and Walters AO1 The bobo doll experiment was repeated, but this time the three groups were exposed to an aggressive model and saw different consequences for the model: When left on their own to play the children in group 1 showed the most aggression followed by group 3.
Group 2 was the least aggressive. This shows that imitation is more likely to occur when the model is positively reinforced, demonstrating the importance of vicarious reinforcement. Applications AO1 This theory is used to explain the influence of the media on behavior. The perpetrators, who were themselves children, claimed that they had been influenced by the film Child Play 3. However these children came from a disturbed family where they might have witness real life violence and social deprivation.
Evaluation AO3 Social learning theory is supported by research Bandura at al. At this young age parents would guide their understanding of the situation and moderate their behavior this was not the case in the studies as the children were on their own. The children were aggressive towards a doll which they know does not feel pain and cannot retaliate; their behavior might be different towards another child. Furthermore the children were in an unfamiliar environment they might have thought that they were expected to behave like the model demand characteristics.
The participants were young children, older children and adults might not have imitated the aggressive behavior as they have more developed moral values. The theory does not explain why the boys imitated the physical aggressive behavior more than the girls. Other factors must be involved such as biological factors like testosterone.
SLT can explain the difference of behavior between different cultures as if a behavior is not displayed it cannot be imitated, this can explain why groups such as the Amish are non-violent. SLT can be used to explain the influence of media on aggressive behavior. It is a more complete explanation of human behavior than conditioning as it takes into account cognitive factors in learning.
However it does not take into account free will and moral values. Issues and debates Behaviorism AO3 Free will Vs determinism Strong determinism of the behavioral approach as all behavior is learnt from our environment through classical and operant conditioning. We are the sum total of our previous conditioning. Softer determinism of the social learning approach theory as it recognises an element of choice as to whether we imitate a behavior or not.
Outline two theories of relationship breakdown
Nature Vs nurture Behaviorism is very much on the nurture side of the debate as it argues that our behavior is learnt from the environment. The social learning theory is also on the nurture side because it argues that we learn our behavior from role models in our environment.
Akert found that the person who instigated the break-up tended to suffer fewer negative consequences than the non-instigator. Another criticism is the model for breakdown is not universal as it does not apply to every case of relationship breakdown nor does the phases always occur in the same order. The model does not apply to homosexual relationships or heterosexual relationships where there are no children. The model identifies opportunities for different repair strategies at different points.
For example during the intrapsychic stage where people brood over the negatives of their partner and the relationship, they can be encouraged to focus instead on the positives. During the Dyadic stage communication is key and ensuring this is constructive and solution focused rather than blame orientated can help avoid hitting the next threshold where breakdown is more difficult to avoid as it becomes social.
Therefore such insights into the break-up process as applications particularly in relationship counselling. Research into breakdown like this also raises ethical issues as it focuses on sensitive areas which raises the issue of vulnerability in participants who may have to relive the experiences of breakdown causing further stress.
Privacy and confidentiality are also invaded as researchers question them to find out why the relationship broke down and this presents a major issue particularly when domestic abuse is a factor. In some cultures arranged marriages tend to be more permanent and involve families in crisis, which these models cannot fully explain.
Therefore the model can be argued to be ethnocentric and lacking external validity to wider generalisation across different cultures. The model does not account for love and how that may play a mitigating role in relationship breakdown yet it is universally accepted as a key component within relationships.