Physics and its relationship to other sciences

Physics - Wikipedia

physics and its relationship to other sciences

PSYCHOLOGY AND PHYSICS. in the family of sciences in that it depends upon each of the others, to different degrees, and in turn it illumi In the relations between psychology and biology these two-way exchanges are particularly. Economics and its relation to other sciences. LM Physics. Economics and Human Biology is devoted to the exploration of the effect of. Physics is related to chemistry in as much as chemical reactions are basically electromagnetic in nature. Chemistry is related to biology through bio-chemistry.

physics and its relationship to other sciences

Physics is also called "the fundamental science" because the subject of study of all branches of natural science like chemistry, astronomy, geology, and biology are constrained by laws of physics, [53] similar to how chemistry is often called the central science because of its role in linking the physical sciences.

For example, chemistry studies properties, structures, and reactions of matter chemistry's focus on the atomic scale distinguishes it from physics. Structures are formed because particles exert electrical forces on each other, properties include physical characteristics of given substances, and reactions are bound by laws of physics, like conservation of energy, mass, and charge.

Physics is applied in industries like engineering and medicine. Application and influence Archimedes' screwa simple machine for lifting The application of physical laws in lifting liquids Applied physics is a general term for physics research which is intended for a particular use.

An applied physics curriculum usually contains a few classes in an applied discipline, like geology or electrical engineering. It usually differs from engineering in that an applied physicist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is using physics or conducting physics research with the aim of developing new technologies or solving a problem.

10+1, Chapter 1A, Question 5 Physics Relation with other sciences

The approach is similar to that of applied mathematics. Applied physicists use physics in scientific research. For instance, people working on accelerator physics might seek to build better particle detectors for research in theoretical physics. Physics is used heavily in engineering.

Physics - Interrelationship Of Physics To Other Sciences

For example, staticsa subfield of mechanicsis used in the building of bridges and other static structures. The understanding and use of acoustics results in sound control and better concert halls; similarly, the use of optics creates better optical devices. An understanding of physics makes for more realistic flight simulatorsvideo gamesand moviesand is often critical in forensic investigations. With the standard consensus that the laws of physics are universal and do not change with time, physics can be used to study things that would ordinarily be mired in uncertainty.

For example, in the study of the origin of the earthone can reasonably model earth's masstemperatureand rate of rotationas a function of time allowing one to extrapolate forward or backward in time and so predict future or prior events. It also allows for simulations in engineering which drastically speed up the development of a new technology. First, the blueprint must be able to reproduce itself.

Secondly, it must be able to instruct the protein. Concerning the reproduction, we might think that this proceeds like cell reproduction. Cells simply grow bigger and then divide in half. Must it be thus with DNA molecules, then, that they too grow bigger and divide in half? Every atom certainly does not grow bigger and divide in half!

No, it is impossible to reproduce a molecule except by some more clever way. Schematic diagram of DNA. The structure of the substance DNA was studied for a long time, first chemically to find the composition, and then with x-rays to find the pattern in space.

physics and its relationship to other sciences

The result was the following remarkable discovery: The DNA molecule is a pair of chains, twisted upon each other. The backbone of each of these chains, which are analogous to the chains of proteins but chemically quite different, is a series of sugar and phosphate groups, as shown in Fig.

Thus perhaps, in some way, the specific instructions for the manufacture of proteins are contained in the specific series of the DNA. Attached to each sugar along the line, and linking the two chains together, are certain pairs of cross-links.

Whatever the letters may be in one chain, each one must have its specific complementary letter on the other chain. What then about reproduction?

physics and its relationship to other sciences

Suppose we split this chain in two. How can we make another one just like it? This is the central unsolved problem in biology today. The first clues, or pieces of information, however, are these: There are in the cell tiny particles called ribosomes, and it is now known that that is the place where proteins are made.

But the ribosomes are not in the nucleus, where the DNA and its instructions are. Something seems to be the matter. However, it is also known that little molecule pieces come off the DNA—not as long as the big DNA molecule that carries all the information itself, but like a small section of it. This is called RNA, but that is not essential. It is a kind of copy of the DNA, a short copy. The RNA, which somehow carries a message as to what kind of protein to make goes over to the ribosome; that is known.

When it gets there, protein is synthesized at the ribosome. That is also known. However, the details of how the amino acids come in and are arranged in accordance with a code that is on the RNA are, as yet, still unknown. We do not know how to read it.

Certainly no subject or field is making more progress on so many fronts at the present moment, than biology, and if we were to name the most powerful assumption of all, which leads one on and on in an attempt to understand life, it is that all things are made of atoms, and that everything that living things do can be understood in terms of the jigglings and wigglings of atoms.

Astronomy is older than physics. In fact, it got physics started by showing the beautiful simplicity of the motion of the stars and planets, the understanding of which was the beginning of physics.

But the most remarkable discovery in all of astronomy is that the stars are made of atoms of the same kind as those on the earth. Atoms liberate light which has definite frequencies, something like the timbre of a musical instrument, which has definite pitches or frequencies of sound. When we are listening to several different tones we can tell them apart, but when we look with our eyes at a mixture of colors we cannot tell the parts from which it was made, because the eye is nowhere near as discerning as the ear in this connection.

However, with a spectroscope we can analyze the frequencies of the light waves and in this way we can see the very tunes of the atoms that are in the different stars. As a matter of fact, two of the chemical elements were discovered on a star before they were discovered on the earth.

Helium was discovered on the sun, whence its name, and technetium was discovered in certain cool stars. This, of course, permits us to make headway in understanding the stars, because they are made of the same kinds of atoms which are on the earth.

Now we know a great deal about the atoms, especially concerning their behavior under conditions of high temperature but not very great density, so that we can analyze by statistical mechanics the behavior of the stellar substance. Even though we cannot reproduce the conditions on the earth, using the basic physical laws we often can tell precisely, or very closely, what will happen.

So it is that physics aids astronomy. Strange as it may seem, we understand the distribution of matter in the interior of the sun far better than we understand the interior of the earth. What goes on inside a star is better understood than one might guess from the difficulty of having to look at a little dot of light through a telescope, because we can calculate what the atoms in the stars should do in most circumstances. One of the most impressive discoveries was the origin of the energy of the stars, that makes them continue to burn.

One of the men who discovered this was out with his girlfriend the night after he realized that nuclear reactions must be going on in the stars in order to make them shine. She was not impressed with being out with the only man who, at that moment, knew why stars shine.

physics and its relationship to other sciences

Well, it is sad to be alone, but that is the way it is in this world. Furthermore, ultimately, the manufacture of various chemical elements proceeds in the centers of the stars, from hydrogen. How do we know? Because there is a clue.

Economics and its relation to other sciences by Lean Mari on Prezi

The proportions are purely the result of nuclear reactions. By looking at the proportions of the isotopes in the cold, dead ember which we are, we can discover what the furnace was like in which the stuff of which we are made was formed. Astronomy is so close to physics that we shall study many astronomical things as we go along.

First, meteorology and the weather. Of course the instruments of meteorology are physical instruments, and the development of experimental physics made these instruments possible, as was explained before. However, the theory of meteorology has never been satisfactorily worked out by the physicist.

It turns out to be very sensitive, and even unstable. If you have ever seen water run smoothly over a dam, and then turn into a large number of blobs and drops as it falls, you will understand what I mean by unstable. You know the condition of the water before it goes over the spillway; it is perfectly smooth; but the moment it begins to fall, where do the drops begin?

What determines how big the lumps are going to be and where they will be? That is not known, because the water is unstable. Even a smooth moving mass of air, in going over a mountain turns into complex whirlpools and eddies. In many fields we find this situation of turbulent flow that we cannot analyze today.

Quickly we leave the subject of weather, and discuss geology! The question basic to geology is, what makes the earth the way it is? The most obvious processes are in front of your very eyes, the erosion processes of the rivers, the winds, etc. It is easy enough to understand these, but for every bit of erosion there is an equal amount of something else going on. Mountains are no lower today, on the average, than they were in the past.

There must be mountain-forming processes. You will find, if you study geology, that there are mountain-forming processes and volcanism, which nobody understands but which is half of geology.

Richard Feynman’s “The Relation of Physics to Other Sciences” – Dillon Carroll

The phenomenon of volcanoes is really not understood. What makes an earthquake is, ultimately, not understood. It is understood that if something is pushing something else, it snaps and will slide—that is all right. But what pushes, and why? The theory is that there are currents inside the earth—circulating currents, due to the difference in temperature inside and outside—which, in their motion, push the surface slightly.

Thus if there are two opposite circulations next to each other, the matter will collect in the region where they meet and make belts of mountains which are in unhappy stressed conditions, and so produce volcanoes and earthquakes. What about the inside of the earth? A great deal is known about the speed of earthquake waves through the earth and the density of distribution of the earth. However, physicists have been unable to get a good theory as to how dense a substance should be at the pressures that would be expected at the center of the earth.

In other words, we cannot figure out the properties of matter very well in these circumstances. We do much less well with the earth than we do with the conditions of matter in the stars.

The mathematics involved seems a little too difficult, so far, but perhaps it will not be too long before someone realizes that it is an important problem, and really works it out.

The other aspect, of course, is that even if we did know the density, we cannot figure out the circulating currents. Nor can we really work out the properties of rocks at high pressure. Incidentally, psychoanalysis is not a science: The witch doctor has a theory that a disease like malaria is caused by a spirit which comes into the air; it is not cured by shaking a snake over it, but quinine does help malaria.

physics and its relationship to other sciences

So, if you are sick, I would advise that you go to the witch doctor because he is the man in the tribe who knows the most about the disease; on the other hand, his knowledge is not science. Psychoanalysis has not been checked carefully by experiment, and there is no way to find a list of the number of cases in which it works, the number of cases in which it does not work, etc. The other branches of psychology, which involve things like the physiology of sensation—what happens in the eye, and what happens in the brain—are, if you wish, less interesting.

But some small but real progress has been made in studying them. First, we see just how much overlap there is between fields of knowledge. It becomes clear how arbitrary and artificial the boundaries between disciplines are.

Chemistry at its most basic, theoretical level is quantum physics, and in its turn organic chemistry encroaches on the territory of biology. Unsolved problems in various disciplines are, at heart, the same physical process.

Richard Feynman’s “The Relation of Physics to Other Sciences” – Dillon Carroll | oudonquijote

Feynman describes an age old mechanics problem that has yet to be solved: These lead us to the other themes in this chapter: In previous chapters Feynman has already described how the nature of quantum mechanics prevents us from predicting how very tiny particles will behave.

Often the best we can do is to look at the behavior of the aggregate, such as in the shared branch of chemistry and physics called statistical mechanics. Feynman spends much more words examining biology than on any of the other disciplines. This is the one part of the chapter where he loses focus, describing a lot of biological concepts without ever relating all of them back to physics, which is his goal.