Energy II - Cellular Respiration (Glycolysis) - BIOLF - Confluence
Redox Reactions. An Outline of the Stages in Cellular Respiration. Major Objectives of this Module. Describe the relationships among photosynthesis. Study Flashcards On Celluar Respiration/Photosynthesis at kinenbicounter.info Quickly Explain the role of REDOX reactions in cellular respiration? Explain the role of. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are essentially opposite In the light phase, energy from light powers reactions that split water to.
However, the method in which each accomplishes this differs in various aspects.
Study Guide: How are Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Related to Each Other?
Redox Reactions Redox reactions are an important process for cellular respiration and photosynthesis. These reactions are also known as oxidation-reduction. In a redox reaction one reactant transfers partially or completely one or more electrons to another.
The electron-losing reactant is known as the reducing agent and is considered oxidized in the reaction. The substance gaining electrons is referred to as the oxidizing agent and is considered reduced.
Oxidation-reduction in cellular respiration differs from photosynthesis in the direction of the electron transfer. In respiration, electrons are transferred from glucose molecules to oxygen. Therefore, glucose is oxidized, while oxygen is reduced in cellular respiration. However, in photosynthesis, electrons travel from water to CO2.
In cellular respiration electrons travel from organic molecules to oxygen, while in photosynthesis electrons travel from oxygen in water to a carbon-based molecule.
Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle Energy is created in cellular respiration through the oxidization of glucose and its derivatives. This occurs during two chemical processes known as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Glycolysis breaks glucose into two molecules of pyruvate.
This process occurs in the cytosol. The Krebs cycle, occurring in the mitochondrial matrix, converts a derivative of pyruvate into carbon dioxide.
Introduction and Goals
Throughout various steps in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle electrons are transported along a specific chain of molecules, known as the electron transport chain. This chain ends in the formation of water through combining hydrogen with oxygen.
Energy is released in each step of the chain and forms adenosine triphosphate ATP. Glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell, breaks glucose down to pyruvate, a more "oxidized" compound. If enough oxygen is present, pyruvate moves into specialized organelles called mitochondria. There, it is broken down into acetate and CO2. The CO2 is releasd.
The acetate enters a reaction system known as the Krebs Cycle. This is opposite of one aspect of photosynthesis, the binding of carbons from CO2 together to make sugar.
Introduction to cellular respiration and redox
In addition to CO2, the Krebs Cycle and glycolysis use energy from the chemical bonds of substrates such as glucose to form high-energy compounds such as ATP and GTP, which are used by cell systems.
Also produced are high-energy, reduced compounds: These compounds are the means by which electrons, which hold the energy derived initially from glucose or another food compound, are transferred to the next process, called the electron transport chain. Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation In the electron transport chain, which in animal cells is located mostly on the inner membranes of mitochondria, reduced products such as NADH and FADH2 are used to create a proton gradient -- an imbalance in the concentration of unpaired hydrogen atoms on one side of the membrane vs.
The proton gradient, in turn, drives the production of more ATP, in a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Overall Effects Overall, photosynthesis involves the energizing of electrons by light energy to reduce add electrons to CO2 to build a larger compound glucoseproducing oxygen as a byproduct.
Cellular respiration, on the other hand, involves taking electrons away from a substrate glucose, for instancewhich is to say oxidation, and in the process the substrate is degraded so that its carbon atoms are released as CO2, while oxygen is consumed. Thus, photosynthesis and cellular oxidation are nearly opposite biochemical processes.