The major factors, governed the mangrove ecosystem
The major factors, governing the mangrove ecosystem dynamic ecosystem, and are dependent on the following inter-related, environmental both, biotic and abiotic factors: . Productivity, energy flow, trophic relationship, nutrient cycling. Where are Mangrove swamps found? > . Biotic and Abiotic Factors. Biotic Factos. Animals- such as the mangrove crab, Saltwater Crocodile, Jabiru, Sea Snake. The statement that "you can't have one without the other" is true of biotic and abiotic factors in a forest. They work together to create a healthy.
If you think about this as it relates to a forest ecosystem, biotic factors include everything from fungi and plants to insects and other large animals. Biotic factors are broken into three main categories: Autotrophs are defined as being living things that can self-feed.
Plants and algae fall into this category because they can feed themselves. Of course, they need the area around them to help with sunlight, water and nutrients, but then they do the work to make their own food through either photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.
Sciencing Video Vault Heterotrophs consume the forest ecosystem around them. The final category, detritivores, are the decomposers.Difference between Abiotic and Biotic Factors
They are like the cleanup crew to both of the other categories because they eat dead things. Many insects and worms fall into this category.
What Is an Abiotic Factor? Now that you know biotic factors are living things, you probably figured out that abiotic factors are nonliving things.
Everything in a forest ecosystem that is not living falls into this category. This includes both big categories like habitat and objects like rocks, sticks or soil. On the other hand, the same euhaline zone along the estuaries of the east coast, which is a delta region, shows the presence of luxuriant mangrove forests as observed in the Gangetic, Mahanadi and Godavari deltas. Wave action is maximum and the gradient is not steep; thus sediment accertion will take place in the region of confluence which is known as delta.
Otherwise, the entire sediment load will be washed into the sea. Its substratum is silty. The salinity in this area is less than 0. Different mangrove species, according to their salt tolerant ability and substratum preference occupy different zones along the estuaries.
List of Biotic and Abiotic Factors in a Forest Ecosystem | Sciencing
The accretion of sediment at the mouth of the major estuaries like Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, etc. During this process, the fine alluvial silt is deposited in the form of shallow islands in the mouth region.
Slowly the new mangrove formation develop following a typical succession pattern. After the growth of pioneer species, the dominant or climax vegetation of mangrove species takes over and flourish.
These new mangrove formations are very sensitive to the flood waters during rainy season. Depending upon the flood, the rate of erosion in the mangrove soil varies. During heavy to very heavy floods, these new mangrove formation may be completely washed out.
During the rainy season, the rate of erosion is higher while during non monsoon season the accretion is higher. The effect of accretion and erosion seem to be more prominent along the east coast than on the west coast of India.
Succession The succession of mangrove is dependent on the available seeds or propagules, their size or length and the tidal fluctuation. Seeds of grass, sedge or Excoecaria agallocha, which are minute in size, will always establish themselves at the uppermost limit of the intertidal region. At the same time, seedlings of taxa like, Rhizophora, Kandelia, Ceriops or Bruguiera will be established according to their floating height.
Biotic and Abiotic Factors by Isis Taylor on Prezi
Productivity, energy flow, trophic relationship, nutrient cycling Detritus decomposition The major ecological role of mangroves is the stabilization of the shoreline and prevention of shore erosion. The dense network of prop roots, pneumatophores and stilt roots not only give mechanical support to the plant, but also trap the sediments.
The rate of sedimentation or accretion is generally much higher in these estuaries lined with mangroves. The second important ecological role of the mangroves is the detritus, which help in feeding and provides breeding and nursery grounds for the juveniles of many commercially important shrimps and fishes.
Major primary production in the mangrove ecosystem is from the trees. However, only a fraction of this production is consumed by herbivores. The remainder enters the mangrove water as litter fall.
The decomposition of this litter fall produces detritus, which in turn is colonized by heterotrophic microorganisms, thus enhancing its nutritive value. The detritus, besides forming a food source for suspension and deposit feeders, is also consumed by the juveniles of a variety of bivalves, shrimps and fishes, which migrate into the mangrove environments in their life cycle for better feeding and protection.
There is a direct correlation between the extent of mangrove forests along a coastline and the fishery as well as shrimp catches from the coastal waters adjoining the mangroves, thus demonstrating the importance of mangroves for sustaining coastal fisheries.
In mangrove forests, the floral elements responsible for the photosynthesis under brackichwater condition are of different types ie. Angiospermic flora, phytoplankton and marine algae. These elements contribute mainly to the primary productivity. Apart from this, faunal elements like zooplankton are responsible for secondary productivity and benthic animals for tertiary productivity. The primary productivity of phytoplankton: Plankton production in mangrove environment represent only that of surrounding waters i.
Other interrelated ecosystems Benthic community Major groups represented by the benthic organisms are molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, hydroids, actinarians, planarians, nematodes, polychaetes and larval forms of several other organisms. Pelagic community The mangrove water, usually rich in detritus are highly suitable for fishing. The major fishery resources found in these waters are detritivorous species of fishes, crabs, crustaceans and molluscs.
The annual landing of the fish form the Hoogly-Matlah estauries of Gangetic Sundarbans have exceeded 10, tons. Prawns are represented by the species of Penaeus and Metapenaeus while the crabs are represented mainly by Scylla serrata. The molluscans of mangrove waters are mainly represented by Crassostrea spp.
In the upstream regions, giant prawns like Microbrachium rosenbergii are also found in large quantities. Human habitation and traditional mangrove usage Most of the human settlement along the Indian coast are mainly located along the estuaries and deltas.
Gangetic Sundarbans, Godavari delta, Cochin backwaters, Bombay and many other townships are very significant examples.
In India, the mangroves forests have traditionally been used for variety of purposes like boat building, tannin extraction, firewood, stake for fishing, fodder, fertilizer, etc.
There are few mangrove forests like Sundarbans where human habitation takes place within the forest.
The Sundarbans region account for 19 community development blocks, three urban centres and 1, villages. The total population of the Sundarbans is around 2. For boat building, Heritiera agallocha while Avicennia and Rhizophora spp.
Poles from Bruguiera and Carapa sp. Are supposed to be good and hence preferred. Amoora cuculata wood is very hard and is used for toys and other articles. The barks of Rhizophora, Bruguiera, and Ceriops sepcies are used as source for tannin.
Leaves of Acanthus ilicifolius are used for rheumatic disorder. Crude potassium carbonate is made from Salicornia brachiata. Commercial exploration Exploitation of mangrove forest for timber is limited to well managed forest like Gangetic Sundarbans, Andaman-Nicobar and deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna.
Mangroves on the west coat of India are not managed and hence do not produce timber of any significant value In India, mangrove trees are used for house building, furniture, transmission as well as as telephone poles and certain household items.
Mangrove trees have been the source of firewood in India since ancient time. Because of the high specific gravity of rhizophoraceous wood, the species of Rhizophora, Kandelia, Ceriops and Bruguiera are preferred for firewood.
The Gulf of Kuchchh, being arid zone, does not have any other vegetation or source of energy for cooking or as a green fodder for cattle, camel and goats. A large population of camels regularly graze on the green leaves of Avicennia marina and Porteresia coarctata.
Solar cookers, biogas plants, liberal LPG connections and use of electricity are some of the firewood substitutes used to minimize the pressure on mangroves. Tannin is extracted from the bark of some mangrove species like Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Ceriops tagal.
Extracts from mangrove bark are used by Indian fishermen to dye their fishing net and enhance its durability. Honey collection from the mangrove forest is a promising business in India. It has been estimated that Sundarbans mangrove alone produce tons of honey annually.
Honey collected from Cynometra ramiflora and Aegialitis rotundifolia has a good market value and is in demand. Bark and roots of Aegicera corniculatum and Derris heterophylla are used as mild fish poison. Phoenix paludosa and Sonneratia caseolaris are used for human consumption and as cattle feed.