Relationship of study habits and academic performance contract

relationship of study habits and academic performance contract

study habits with academic achievement. In this study descriptive correlation study,. undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University Jiroft Branch. relationship between study habits and academic performance of secondary school students Key words: Mathematics, Students Academic Performance and Study Habits. 1. .. as appropriate to suit your choice of option/level of agreement or. The Linear correlation scatter plot of the academic performance . correlation between study habits and academic performance was In spite of the fact that performance contracts could facilitate objective evaluation and.

To determine the frequency to which student of Ngumbe use the library. How often do students use the library? The result of the study will 5 make them aware of the common good study habits which can result in most of them getting good grades in the examinations. And this study will provide them information to their concern regarding the poor study habits of their students. Through this study, they can think of a way on how they can increase the interest of the students.

They can also properly motivate and guide their students toward acquiring good study habits, thus making the students perform well in their academic responsibilities. But due to factors like examinations, it failed to incorporate form two students as they were already on holiday at the time of questionnaire administration after writing Junior Certificate of Education JCE examinations.

Therefore, the researcher only considered forms 1, 3 and 4. Study techniques refers to the use of different methods applicable for learning such as, note taking, SQ3R, KWL that will help in students in adhering the ideas.

Factors refer to anything that affects study habits. Study skills refer to the strategies in studying on a particular subject. It refers to summarizing information. Thomas and Robinson emphasized that the learner needs to use a systematic discipline and purposive approach to study. Effective study consists of a conscious sequential series of inter-related steps and processes. Okorodudu asserted that, study involves the total of all behavioral patterns addition, verbal, psychomotor, emotional determined purpose and enforced practices that the individual adapts in order to learn and achieve competence.

Study habit is the daily routine of students with regards to their academic duties and responsibilities. Each student has his own study habits varying on his preferences with the place and time of studying, skills in studying and more.

Studying not only prepares a student to excel in a class but it also reinforces the lessons already taught.

Studying reawakens the lessons and reading materials. Studying is merely reviewing and committing to memory new information.

relationship of study habits and academic performance contract

Hills and Ballow had an understanding of this deficiency in students approach to study and they developed a comprehensive study skill manual for students.

Effective study cannot be acquired without the application of these techniques and methods. Some of which include test preparation, note- taking, time consideration, library use, organizing material in a study and choosing a good study environment among others.

It also added that if you try to do too much studying at one time, you will tire and your 8 studying will not be very effective. Space the work you have to do over shorter periods of time. Taking short breaks will restore your mental energy. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued. He said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies to meet with friends, to play some cards. For this way, that student will find concentration when he does study, if he plans a social activity afterwards.

A student must find a comfortable and quiet niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or so. Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing study habits as what Mark said. De Escobar listed good study habits among which are: Williamson posited that some negative study habits are difficult to break and can seriously affect students grades. She suggested that to break the bad study habits students should: Study Environment Where one studies has an important effect on one's efficiency because the location and all of its characteristics are stimuli.

It has been suggested by Osa-Edoh and Alututhat the study environment should be well ventilated, noise-free and well lighted room or open place with a desk and a chair. Ruch wrote on the need to consider the type of chair and desk used for study.

These should allow the individual to maintain an erect and comfortable sitting posture. The study desk should be spacious enough for the books and materials but should contain only what one needs at a time.

Hepher emphasized the need for abundance of fresh air in the study environment to avoid unnecessary fatigue. Hills and Ballow pointed out that glaring light could cause eye strain and headaches. In effect, light should not shine directly on the table or reading desk.

Taking to consideration a rural setting where students have to study under locally made lamps and hurricane lanterns, these should be adjusted well enough to reduce light intensity or place at a considerable distance away from the reading desk. It has been observed that some people cannot study without music, Hills and Ballow agree that music is good if it does not constitute noise in itself or when used to neutralize other external noise.

As 10 regards time planning, Hills and Ballow suggests the use of work diary. The work diary allocates time for every subject.

relationship of study habits and academic performance contract

Organizing time in this way helps to minimize worry and indecision that may arise in case of any extra work that has to be slotted in, the diary should be planned on the basis of needs and purposes; allocating adequate time to each task so that no particular task consume more time than necessary. Note-taking when properly done, involves not only reading and writing or listening to lessons and jotting down points but also requires concentration and reading out for necessary facts.

It may not be as easy as it seem to be to the observer. It involves the thought and hearing ability of the individual. Note-taking may have detrimental effect for students who are slow in listening efficiency.

In view of this, Derville suggested certain aids for effective note-taking in the form of short abbreviations. These abbreviations would be helpful to the slow writer. Care need to be taken to see that only relevant ideas are included in a note, whether it is in a lesson or from a text book. Okorodudu emphasized that unless a student has an exceptional memory, it is difficult to master and recall accurately all the main points and relevant details in a study material by merely reading it.

School librarians guide students through their reading and research process as well as helping them to choose books that fit their interests. Thus, a school library cannot be separated from the school — parent institution and expect all round development of the students Jato, et. Hills and Ballow developed comprehensive study skills.

Effective study cannot be acquired without the application of these skills and methods. Some of which include reading, note-taking, time consideration, organizing material in a study and choosing a good study environment among others. However, there are some general techniques that seem to produce good results. No one would argue that every subject that you have to take is going to be so interesting. Survey - get the best overall picture of what you're going to study before you study it in any detail.

Question - ask questions for learning. The important things to learn are usually answers to questions. Questions should lead to emphasis on the what, why, how, when, who and where of study content. Ask yourself questions as you read or study. As you answer them, you will help to make sense of the material and remember it more easily because the process will make an impression on you.

Those things that make impressions are more meaningful, and therefore more easily remembered. Read - Reading is not running your eyes over a textbook. When you read, read actively.

Read to answer questions you have asked yourself or questions the instructor or author has asked. Always be alert to bold or italicized print. The authors intend that this material receive special emphasis. Also, when you read, be sure to read everything, including tables, graphs and 12 illustrations. Often times tables, graphs and illustrations can convey an idea more powerfully than written text. Recite - When you recite, you stop reading periodically to recall what you have read.

Try to recall main headings, important ideas of concepts presented in bold or italicized type, and what graphs, charts or illustrations indicate. Try to develop an overall concept of what you have read in your own words and thoughts. Try to connect things you have just read to things you already know.

When you do this periodically, the chances are you will remember much more and be able to recall material for papers, essays and objective tests. Review - A review is a survey of what you have covered. It is a review of what you are supposed to accomplish, not what you are going to do. Rereading is an important part of the review process. Reread with the idea that you are measuring what you have gained from the process.

During review, it's a good time to go over notes you have taken to help clarify points you may have missed or don't understand. The best time to review is when you have just finished studying something.

Don't wait until just before an examination to begin the review process. Before an examination, do a final review. If you manage your time, the final review can be thought of as a "fine-tuning" of your knowledge of the material.

Preview an assignment by scanning it. Read the chapter outline at the beginning of the chapter. Pay attention to the headings of the sections and subsections.

The point is to get an idea of the main topics and sections of the chapter. Question yourself by making questions of the headings of each section and subsection.

As you read the assignment, look for the answers to the questions you have made. Self-Recitation requires that you try to remember the main points of each section and that you say them out loud if possible to yourself.

You test yourself after you have finished the entire chapter. What we what we what we Know Want to Learned know Know. Think first about, then list, what you know about the topic before studying.

This advanced organizer provides you with a background to the new material, building a scaffold to support it. Before looking at the text, think of keywords, terms, or phrases about the topic, either in your class or a study group.

Record these in the K column of your chart until you cannot think of more. The second stage is to list a series of questions of what you want to know more of the subject, based upon what you listed in K. List some thoughts on what you want, or expect to learn, generally or specifically. Turn all sentences into questions before writing them down. They will help you focus your attention during reading. List the questions by importance. The final stage is to answer your questions, as well as to list what new information you have learned.

Either while reading or after you have finished. List out what you learn as you read, either by section, or after the whole work, whichever is comfortable for you. Day 2- If you have done nothing with the 14 information you learned in that lesson, didn't think about it again, read it again, etc.

Day 7- We remember even less. This nicely coincides with midterm exams, and may account for feeling as if you've never seen this before in your life when you're studying for exams - you may need to actually re-learn it from scratch.

A week later day 7it only takes 5 minutes to "reactivate" the same material, and again raise the curve. By day 30, your brain will only need minutes to give you the feedback. Mostly, that is the length of one class for schools below university level. In universities it is increased to one hour or more. Good study habits lead to good academic performance but bad and defective study habits result to poor academic performance.

Moghadam and Cheraghian corroborated the assertion and posited that academic performance is affected by a lot of factors; study habit is one of them. De Escobar observed that students need to be familiar with the relation of good study habits and academic achievement to accomplish great success in any level of education. They stated further that study habits are particularly important for students, whose needs include time management, note taking, the elimination of distractions, and assigning high priority to study.

Good study habits are study techniques that enhance the students to realize their full potentials 16 The extent of student's studying in academics may be on the grades a student earns. It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such study. If learners earn high grades it is concluded that they may also have effectively studied hard while low grades indicates lesser and poor study. Included here were the discussions of the subtopics; namely: This is a public school consisted of a total number of twelve 12 classrooms.

The school has also library, science laboratory and computer laboratory. Each classroom can accommodate fifty to seventy 50 - 70 students depending on the form level. As a matter of fact, the school came up with different concerns for their school but the researcher chosen the problem regarding the poor study habit among students. The partnership aimed to develop good qualities of education of Ngumbe Secondary School, which was a good thing to know.

This represents a The sample size is supported by Babbie, The population was sampled through a simple random sampling procedure to avoid biasness. Form one and three contributed thirty four 34 each while form four contributed thirty seven 37 respondents. There were some open-ended questions as well. The research questionnaire was described in terms of time management, note taking, test preparation, study environment, student examination performance and library use.

The test questionnaire had at least five questions for each indicator. The respondents chose from always, often, sometimes, and never. Putting a check on the corresponding box was based on the study habits that they are experiencing.

The respondents answered questionnaires within the school campus and the questionnaires were retrieved on the same day of the administration. To improve the reliability and validity of the research instrument, the questionnaire was pilot- tested on similar but smaller sample group from Open Day secondary school section in the first week of May, Observed errors, corrections and re-wordings discovered were effected and incorporated into the main instrument. The analysis and interpretation of data assisted in formulating findings, conclusions and recommendations.

For the purposes of analysis and interpretation, statistical tool, Microsoft excel was used. The researcher used Microsoft excel to easily enter and create graphical or visual representation of data. It was also simple in making inferences. It also gives the interpretation of results. The data were presented in a clear and concise form, most which used graphs and tables. Majority of the respondents have average study habits in terms of managing of time. It illustrates that half of the respondents had fair time to take down notes, re-read notes or summarizes lessons and important stuff in a passage.

The frequency to which student of Ngumbe use the library. It illustrates that almost half of the respondents have poor library usage. The relationship between the study habits of the respondents and student examination performance. In Social and Development Studies, It only means that best performers have excellent study habits in terms of performance. In poor performers, the highest percentage is on never, which means that the respondents have weak percentage in terms of performance. In poor performing students the percentage on never is the highest which means that these students have poor library usage.

The result on the first four figures figure 1. Similar results were identified by Nouhi et al. The findings were also noted in the study of Aquino and Nagaragu It was suggested by Sarwar et al.

Furthermore, a study by Nagaraju found that students usually do not devote sufficient time to their studies and seldom have proper study habits. There was no library hour on the school time table. Students did not use the school library regularly nor spent quality time in the library. The irregular use of the school libraries by the students of secondary schools could lead to poor scores in test and examination. Dent reported that a study conducted by Lance showed that students that used school library regularly had 18 percent higher achievement tests scores than their counterparts without a school library.

Investigating the causes of academic failure of the students at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Dehbozorgi and Mooseli found that People who do not have enough information on study strategies will not have effective and sustainable learning practices, despite all the time that they spend studying [11]. In their article, Abd Khodaei and Ghaffari reported that there is a relationship between study strategies and the achievement of success in studies [12]. Based on Pankison, Rana, and Kausar study assert that students who have more effective study habits get higher scores in comparison to students with ineffective study habits [13].

In various studies, the skills and habits of students have been reported differently. Parto studied the academic achievement of nursing students and identified the factors related to the academic achievement of students [14]. Since medical students work with a great deal of information during their studies, they need to use new strategies for organization and learning [15]. Since there is a relationship between the study habits and the academic performances of different students, this study aimed to determine the relationship between these study habits and academic performances so that we could present recommendations for academic achievements, and the enhancement and modification of study habits in students through the investigation of study skills and the identification of the related factors.

All the students studying at the Guilan University of Medical Sciences, apart from the guest- and the transferred students who had completed only one semester, could enter the study as samples. The data collection tools included a questionnaire in two parts. PSSHI measures the students' study habits in 8 domains: According to the instructions of the questionnaire, the minimum and maximum scores were 0 and 90, respectively; scores of 60 and above were considered as the desirable study habits; scores between 31 and 59 were considered relatively desirable, and scores below 30 were considered as undesirable [17].

In every question in all the eight domains relating to study habits, scores between 0. The correlation coefficient between the domains was obtained as 0. Each student's Grade Point Average was used to assess their academic performance. The names of students along with their GPA were taken from the Department of Education and were recorded in the questionnaire after asking students questions.

Achieving a score of 17 and above was considered as a good performance; a score of 14— After obtaining authorization by the Research Council of the Guilan University of Medical Sciences and the Ethics Committee of the Department of Research and Technology by the end of the semester in the first half ofwe referred to the desired colleges; the consent forms and the questionnaires were given to the students and were collected after completion.

Data were collected after coding and they were entered into the SPSS software version In order to categorize and summarize the data, descriptive statistics such as the mean, the standard deviation, and frequency distribution tables were used.