# Relationship of theory and practice in education

The relationship of theory and practice in designing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences: learning from examples that don't work. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your \$5 becomes \$15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only once a year. practice for teaching and teacher education: the Academic, the Social concepts of theory and practice as well as on the relationship between those concepts.

The simple particle model of the structure of matter developed for the Modelling Change teaching sequence Agrandir Original jpeg, k 38This model draws heavily on the model developed and justified by Vollerbreght Each question presented a phenomenon, and asked pupils to explain what was happening. In addition, pupils were prompted to illustrate their explanation, imagining what it would look like if the internal structure of the matter could be seen.

The purpose of this was to cue pupils to use the particle model that they had already been introduced to during previous teaching. One of the questions is presented in Appendix 1, in illustration. In the terms used in the national curriculum, one of the changes would be termed a chemical change i. The other examples either involve no change, or what would be termed physical changes i.

We are aware, however, that this sharp distinction between physical and chemical change is not easy to sustain.

Balancing Theory vs Practice

For example, each question asked about conservation of mass on change, and each question required pupils to use the simple particle model that had already been taught.

This activity is picked up during the second lesson. The model is summarised on a pupil sheet. The teacher then uses the model to explain the appearance of bubbles in boiling water, and to model the combustion of magnesium. Pupils are then presented with another example of a chemical change involving ionic precipitationwhich they are asked to model in terms of particles. The teacher then illustrates how the expansion of iron is modelled, and pupils are presented with a more complex example of physical change to model for themselves, involving a Cartesian diver.

Teachers can select from these activities according to the outcomes of the diagnostic questions in the first lesson. The lesson involves the scientific story being staged, with opportunities for the teacher to support internalisation and handing-over.

The teacher has considerable autonomy in deciding how each activity is used in terms of staging and handing-over, in order to support internalisation by the students.

Guidance about the communicative approach to be adopted by the teacher is provided for each activity. The activities of the second and third lessons require the teacher to use different forms of communicative approach. Notes were provided on each activity about key questions to raise with pupils. However, no serious attempt was made to present the overall communicative approach in the written materials, and teachers therefore had considerable autonomy in determining the design of the lesson at a fine grain size.

These questions include contexts already encountered by pupils in the thought experiments and lessons 2 and 3, as well as new contexts.

An illustrative question can be found in Appendix 2. A summary of the evaluation evidence for the three teaching sequences 46We have described the design and evaluation of the Plant Nutrition and Electricity teaching sequences previously Scott et al. In this section, we will summarise key aspects of the evaluation of these two teaching sequences, and then present evaluation evidence for the Modelling Change teaching sequence. Design of the evaluation study 47Each of the three teaching sequences was implemented by the three physics, chemistry or biology teachers who worked in the collaborative group which designed the teaching.

A static video camera was used to produce a record of each lesson, and each teacher wore a lapel microphone to provide an audible record of discussions with individual students and small groups. In most cases, a researcher attended the lessons and field notes were made. The video record was analysed to produce a record of the conceptual content of the sequence of lessons, which was compared to the planned sequence of conceptual content. The video record was also analysed to produce a record of the communicative approach used by each teacher, and this was also compared to the planned approach.

In this way, the extent to which the enacted teaching compared with the intentions of the design brief could be compared, and addressed in the evaluation. The questions required students to make a prediction about a phenomenon, and then to explain that phenomenon. Students were therefore able to offer explanations in terms of the model taught through the teaching. Diagnostic questions were used in a pre-test, and the same questions plus some additional ones to probe more technical content were used in a post-test.

### The Relationship Between Theory & Practice in Education | Synonym

This is because our intention was to judge, in the first instance, the extent to which the learning aims of the teaching had been met overall, rather than to judge the relationship of specific teaching activities with learning outcomes. Identical evaluation data were collected and analysed i. Their explanations were then categorised into three groups: In addition, students who followed the designed teaching sequences in all 15 cases were significantly more likely to draw upon the conceptual models introduced in teaching, when compared with students in associated baseline groups.

Although mean scores for students in classes taught by teachers involved in designing the teaching are higher than those for students taught by other teachers, this difference is not statistically significant.

To me it seemed a much better way of going about it and I felt quite excited about the approach. I might have mentioned it in passing, but not really probed the children for their understanding of the analogy. Modelling Change 57The Modelling Change teaching sequence was developed and implemented by three teachers, who we will refer to as Andy, Lee and Sarah.

Pre- and post-test data were collected from students following the Modelling Change teaching sequence. As the teaching sequence was intended to revise content that had previously been taught, it was not possible to collect data from students following a comparable teaching sequence in the same school. The test questions required students to make predictions about the conservation of mass during various physical and chemical change processes, and then to explain the prediction using diagrams and words.

Table 1 shows data from the pre- and post-test evaluations. Sarah used the Modelling Change sequence with two classes.

Pre- and post-test data for students following the Modelling Change teaching sequence Agrandir Original jpeg, 31k 58These data show that students in all 4 classes improved in their ability to make correct predictions about physical and chemical change processes, and to explain them using the taught model, after teaching. Each of the three teachers worked in a different school. The teachers were invited to join the project because they were known to the research team as enthusiastic and competent chemistry teachers, but none of them had any prior involvement in research.

Andy tried to complete every activity in the teaching sequence, rather than selecting activities according to the outcomes of diagnostic questions completed by the students. Lee adapted the sequence to such an extent that it is hard to claim that he followed it.

Sarah followed the teaching sequence broadly as intended. We were going to look at … conservation of mass in the chemical reactions, and physical change … but in the end the reality of what we did was very different.

One of the most beneficial things I take forward is that these kids do not understand the particle theory of matter. The main aim of the unit with the demos and the practicals that were in there, the majority of it seemed to concentrate on conservation of mass on the particle side and then using that, for example, with dissolving. This comment reinforces his previous statement that the aim of the teaching was to enable students to make correct predictions about the conservation of mass.

• The Relationship Between Theory & Practice in Education

At the beginning, as noted above, she expected her high-achieving students to find the work unproblematic, but in practice the students found the work extremely challenging. I felt embarrassed to be on the video doing what I was doing.

It was a bit of a shock! The aim was to teach the kids how to model using particles. And to get across the main ideas that they tend to get wrong, which would be particles disappearing, growing, shrinking … to overcome the misconceptions that they have.

I think the whole chemical change thing is a lot more complicated. That throws up things about our scheme of work in that, in Year 9, we always teach chemical reactions before we do materials. So therefore in the future I would teach them the other way round. There are more ups than downs! Definitely, despite all their protestations, they have managed to wedge something in there somehow. What might other designers take from the evaluation evidence presented in this paper through the use of the framework?

However, such conclusions are not particularly helpful to other designers who might wish to draw upon findings from the study. It is unlikely that any designer would wish to take any of the three designed teaching sequences and use it without modification.

This enables more nuanced conclusions to be advanced from evaluation evidence. This is an issue about the worked example itself, rather than the design brief: In addition, the overall formulation of the worked example i. Again, this is an issue where the worked example, rather than the design brief itself, was found to be wanting. A failure to address the role of bonding in the worked example would have been along these lines.

In addition, the worked example did not succeed in motivating two of the three teachers involved in the study.

For these reasons, we would not advocate the use of the Modelling Change teaching sequence by other teachers without significant modification. However, there is no evidence to suggest that our initial analysis of learning demands requires modification; rather, it appears that there are weaknesses in the worked example and the design brief itself.

The worked example did not enable at least one of the three teachers to do this. As previously mentioned, Modelling Change was the first of the three teaching sequences to be designed.

Based upon this finding, the design briefs for both the Plant Nutrition and Electricity teaching sequences required lessons to be developed which placed more modest requirements upon teachers to select activities from a range of possible choices.

In each case, the worked examples that were developed specified the precise content of each lesson in some detail. Future worked examples might address this limitation by providing more explicit teacher guidance.

There is also evidence to suggest that the design brief itself is flawed. A more appropriate aim would have been to introduce students to a model, and support them in learning to use the model, working systematically from relatively simple change processes mixing, phase change to more complex changes where new substances are formed.

Although the design brief for Modelling Change included reference to modelling a range of change processes, it did not justify the selection of particular pedagogic strategies using an analogy, using empirical evidence, etc. If a design is unsuccessful in several respects at a large grain size, these weaknesses have to be addressed in order to address aspects of detail at a finer grain size.

How might this be explained? They also provided a clear rationale about the pedagogic strategies that were to be used in the teaching in order to address staging, supporting internalisation and handing-over, at a fine grain size. Based on an analysis of learning demands, the design brief required the teaching to open up for students the inadequacy of linear sequential models of simple circuits electricity originates in a source, passes through the circuit, and is used in some way in a device such as a lamp in the circuit.

The worked example that was developed began with an activity in which students had to predict what would happen when a simple series circuit with very long wires was connected the BIG circuit; see Scott et al.

As expected, many students predicted that there would be a significant time delay between connecting a wire of the circuit to the power source, and the lamp lighting. When the circuit was connected, students were surprised that there was no discernable time delay, opening up a problem to be explained.

An analogy was then introduced to explain the behaviour of the circuit, and to bridge between the simple physics model and the phenomenon.

Given the evaluation evidence, we conclude that this part of the worked example i. However, in subsequent work the precise details of the analogy that was used have been changed, based upon further evaluation evidence Scott, Conclusion 85In this paper, we have justified in terms of a social constructivist perspective on learning science in formal settings why science teaching sequences need to include staging, supporting internalisation and handing-over.

These phases of a teaching sequence are at a large grain size, and we have described two design tools learning demand and communicative approach which inform, at a fine grain size, decisions about the conceptual aims of teaching and the pedagogical approach to be used. We introduced, and differentiated between, design briefs and worked examples of teaching, and showed how evaluation evidence can give insights about the quality of each.

We showed how differentiating between the design brief, and a worked example to address a design brief, enables evaluation decisions to be made about whether a particular teaching sequence is successful in addressing its design intentions, or rather whether the design intentions themselves need modification.

This was exemplified by illustrating how the worked examples used in the Electricity and Plant Nutrition teaching sequences addressed design flaws in the Modelling Change design brief.

We made the point that worked examples have to enable teachers to use teaching sequences in a manner broadly consistent with their design intentions, before it is possible to evaluate a design brief and worked example at a finer grain size.

Haut de page Bibliographie Ametller, J. Using perspectives on subject learning to inform the design of subject teaching: The Curriculum Journal, 18 4 Studies in Science Education, 18, Discourse in the Novel.

University of Texas Press. Making Sense of Secondary Science. Studies on educational reconstruction of chaos theory. Research in Science Education, 27 3 Teaching for conceptual understanding: Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Leeds. Designing and evaluating science teaching sequences: An approach drawing upon the concept of learning demand and a social constructivist perspective on learning.

Studies in Science Education, 38, Individual and sociocultural perspectives on learning in science education. Science and Education 12 1 On top of these, we have values, which are a set of beliefs, norms, and practices that people embrace. They involve the showing of dignity, respect, privacy, right of choice, and the protection of those in danger of hurting themselves or others.

In this way, the function of a theory is to predict outcomes. The larger theories are used to guide the practice of Information Science and they include the queuing theory, data mining theory, information security and privacy theory, information storage, and retrieval theory among others. On the other hand, smaller theories can be useful in specific settings when interpreting a behavior or a set of behaviors.

According to Rappoporttheory informs practice, as it provides insight into interpreting behavior contextually and for the generation of an alternative way for new settings. Theories inform practice in the form of function, and for them to develop, their background is needed. Issues Involved in Translating Theory into Practice A theory is used to explain the collection, analysis, classification, storage, recovery, and dissemination of information, while providing a framework for analysis.

Since the learning of information discipline is interrelated to other disciplines, it is dynamic in that humans exhibit behavior that is intentional, and therefore change the outcome of the practice of theory. Another issue may be that the theories only explain a part and not the whole. When one part of the system is affected, it touches everything; thus the need to be dealt with in its entirety. In contrast however, some theorists have based their arguments on how the explanation has been done.

A Theory of Current Interest Scientific literature is one of the most important sources in the learning of information discipline as suggested by Apel The study of the explanatory theory is paramount to the interpretation of the evolution and emergence of the learning of information discipline and it has changed within the science of philosophy since The explanatory theory is one that deals with the current interest in the learning of information discipline.

An explanation has been linked to causation; hence, from one to give explanations on a certain event, there is a need to identify its causes first.

This change has been attributed to the linguistic turn of philosophy, and years later, the philosophers attempted to understand the nature and scope of modern theoretical foundations of science.

## The relation of theory to practice in the education of teachers

It is a theory that is developed after the aforementioned two theories i. This theory might give explanations either from a realistic point of view or the anti- realistic point of examination.

The realistic point of view posits that whatever entity that exists, is a description of literal reality. The anti-realists are of the view that such entities do not necessarily exist literally, but these are useful in the organization of human experiences and for the construction of empirical models that are consistent.

Hempels theory of explanation deals with the anti-logical form, not mentioning the connection between the event being explained and the facts alleged to explain the event. These theories that appeal to the unobservable produce results that are radical.

Salmon theory of explanation gives a realistic account, emphasis being made on the causative relationship between the real processes and the exact explanation of the question 'why'. Therefore, in order to gel this two extreme but correct views, philosophers had to come up with a way of characterizing the main themes in these two ways of interpreting the theories.

As much as the explanation of the truth is important, it faces the challenge of having multiple interpretations since truth has both the realistic and the anti-realistic interpretation. From the realistic point of view, it is a matter of the connection of language with the observed reality. This theory gives us the causal form of the globe.

From the anti-realistic point of view theory, it is used as the background for understanding the current experience. In addition, the explanatory theory instructs our practice to a greater degree than a false one. Discussed is current view, not the classic view: Just because there is a difference in the interpretation of the view, does not mean that scholars in this field do not agree on the theory, they simply beg to differ.

Its uses vary from the industries, to the government, in the growth and expansion of the internet. The fact still remains that explanatory theory is explained from a cause effect point of view.

This means that the observed phenomenon is interpreted based on the cause. Much as some theorists do not believe in the use of theories in practice and would rather prefer the use of common sense, theory is important since it helps in the prediction, and prevents one from unforeseen danger. Some scholars are of the view that before one conducts review in the literature, the analysis of data must be set out. For example, Heat recommends that researchers must develop inductive sensitivity in order to identify relevant literature.

As a result, the discussion between the relationship to the method of data analysis and theory is a sensitive area that needs redress in order to fully add value to the learning of information discipline. This theory is essential to the smooth running of events during the collection, analysis, classification, storage, recovery, and dissemination of information.

The application of the principles in the theory improves the productivity of the individuals and increase retention rates. Explanatory theory has been used in practice by explaining the automation of large data amounts, and to make things easier for users to access it.

Other discussions that deal with access of information are copyright and patent law. With regards to information storage and retrieval, the theory has explained the search for credentials, data, and about the documents.