Production function - Wikipedia
In director Adrian Noble's Metropolitan Opera production, first seen in guide will give your students a better understanding of what makes Macbeth a remarkable and The relationship between Shakespeare's play and the opera by Verdi and. Piave .. discover some functions that a chorus can perform in an opera. In economics, a production function gives the technological relation between quantities of physical inputs and quantities of output of goods. The production. "The narrative casts forth an image of Macbeth as an almost superhuman . in Shakespeare's day is what gives point to Lady Macbeth's strikes against her husband. Women could be unfaithful in marriage, thus changing the lineage, and a . Judith Anderson in the NBC production of Macbeth in versus feminine.
Other minor sources contributed to Shakespeare's dramatic version of history, including Reginald Scot's Discovery of Witchcraft, and Daemonologie, written in by King James I. Macbeth's words on dogs and men in Act 3, scene 1,likely came from Colloquia, the memoirs of Erasmus edition circa The plays of Seneca seem to have had great influence on Shakespeare, and, although no direct similarities to the work of Seneca can be seen in Macbeth, the overall atmosphere of the play and the depiction of Lady Macbeth can be attributed to the Latin author.
An examination of Macbeth and Shakespeare's sources leads us to formulate several conclusions concerning the motives behind the dramatists alterations. It can be argued that the changes serve three main purposes: And, in the grander scheme, Shakespeare's alterations function to convey the sentiment echoed in many of his works — that there is a divine right of kings, and that to usurp the throne is a nefarious crime against all of humanity.
In Holinshed's Chronicles, Macbeth is introduced as a valiant gentleman, and, as in Shakespeare's play, Macbeth is sent by King Duncan to crush the rebellion led by Mackdonwald.
However, to ensure Macbeth is viewed early in the play as extraordinarily courageous, Shakespeare changes Macbeth's role in the demise of Mackdonwald as presented in the Chronicles: Macbeth entering into the castell by the gates, found the carcasse of Mackdonwald lieng dead there amongst the residue of the slaine bodies, which when he beheld, remitting no peece of his cruell nature with that pitiful sight, he caused the head to be cut off, and set upon a poles end, and so sent it as a present to the king.
Contrasting with the above passage, in the drama Macbeth has not simply stumbled upon the body of the rebel, he has instead heroically killed Mackdonwald in battle: For brave Macbeth — well he deserves that name — Disdaining Fortune, with his brandish'd steel, Which smok'd with bloody execution, Like Valor's minion carv'd out his passage Till he faced the slave; Which nev'r shook hands, nor bade farewell to him, Till he unseam'd him from the nave to th' chops, And fix'd his head upon our battlements I.
In addition to the dramatic effect of making the report from the Captain more exciting, enhancing the bravery of Macbeth by altering his part in the defeat of Mackdonwald aids Shakespeare's construction of Macbeth as a tragic hero.
Our first impression of Macbeth must be one of grandeur; he must command our attention at once for what occurs in the rest of the play to be significant. As a brave warrior and leader, Macbeth is capable of taking others' burdens upon himself. His fears and scruples, his anxious dependence on his wife's opinions bespeak a sensitive 'femaleness' in his own nature which is visibly belied by her brutality.
We are left in gender limbo" So Shakespeare seems to have deliberately chosen to examine what happens when a man or a woman departs from sexual stereotypes.
In the case of Lady Macbeth, we see the tragic result of one who pushes for the ultimate act of violence, in a manly fashion, not able to predict the "manliness" she will unleash in her husband, or the distance it will create between herself and her "partner in greatness.
According to Stephanie Chamberlain, fear of the power of women was a strong force in early modern England. Women could wield control over patrilineage in ways men could not. Women could be unfaithful in marriage, thus changing the lineage, and a husband could be duped into raising another man's child.
Women could pass on traits, both wanted and unwanted, through nursing, rearing of children, and neglect of children. It was feared that women would commit infanticide. Chamberlain tells us, "Perhaps no other early modern crime better exemplifies cultural fears about maternal agency than does infanticide, a crime against both person and lineage" 3.
Coursen suggests, in fact, that the story of Adam and Eve underlies the entire play. He says, "The myth vibrating beneath the surface of Macbeth is of the original myths - that of the fall from a state of grace" When she says, ". In Act I, scene seven, we see Lady Macbeth acting as the ultimate temptress. She skillfully pulls out all the stops to manipulate her husband. She does not stop there. Next, in the very same speech, Lady Macbeth utters the cryptic lines stating that, rather than back out of this promise to kill Duncan, she would sooner take "the babe that milks me: When Macbeth responds with, "If we should fail?
And she is not through yet. She has the entire plan worked out, and all her husband must do is follow instructions. Apparently, Macbeth feels he must prove his manhood to his wife even though seemingly all of Scotland has acknowledged his bravery and courage.
By the end of a scene like this, what man could stand up to such a woman? The Witches Fear of women in early modern England is also evidenced by the accusations of witchcraft toward primarily women.Relation between TP and MP & Relation between MP and AP, production function and returns to factor
The question is why were women the targets to such an overwhelming degree of this barbaric persecution, and why was this so readily accepted? Where were the defenders of women? Anderson and Gordon point to the lowly position of women in the Middle Ages, "even in the earlier period of 'courtly love'" Anderson They quote Eileen Power when they say, "a fundamental tenet of Christian dogma was the subjection of women, while: The belief in witchcraft, therefore, was not new when King James took the throne of England in However, as in many things, Elizabeth took a moderate approach to their prosecution.
King James, on the other hand, fancied he was an expert, wrote his own book on the subject entitled Daemonologie, and even participated personally in some witch trials Best 1.
A renewed and more enthusiastic persecution of witches was exported from Scotland along with their monarch. Between andsomewhere between three thousand and four thousand five hundred had "perished horribly" in Scotland, more thanin England, despite a much more meager population Anderson One of King James' acts once he took the English throne was to "extend the death penalty" to many more accused witches than had been the case under Elizabethan law.
The English, however, never matched the Scots in these large numbers. In fact, Anderson and Gordon report a study by Notestein suggesting that "self-confident and independent women who increasingly appear in late sixteenth and early seventeenth century drama probably mirrored real changes taking place in all levels of English society" Do the women of Shakespeare's Macbeth reflect a set of conflicting opinions about women of his day?
So we have a very conflicted image of women as source material for Shakespeare's Macbeth. On one hand, we have the text from Holinshed telling us that women were courageous and powerful members of the army in the Scotland of the eleventh century. On the other had, we have the women of Shakespeare's own time circumscribed to a very definite and subordinate role, while ever more independent women begin to appear. Simultaneously, and perhaps in part because of this, women are feared and persecuted, and seen as "inherently evil.
Wouldn't women of be able to relate to operating in a society filled with conflicted feelings? Lady Macbeth, of course, has her husband, and she very solicitously refers to him as "My thane. The superior position of the men must not be ignored if they hope to be at all persuasive. In Early Modern England, the patriarchal family was a value enforced from many directions, especially the Christian Church. Bever explains, "European male leaders considered patriarchal families to be the foundation of society.
The witches in Macbeth fly in the face of the patriarchal society. Early in the play, the witches seem to have no such male superior. Macbeth and Banquo meet three strange women on the heath with no man in sight. Or are they women? So even their appearance sets them apart from normal women. Prior to this we hear about one escapade of the witches who take revenge against a sailor's wife who would not share her chestnuts! What does the witch do?
She goes after the woman's husband. The other witches offer to send additional wind to help her. Shakespeare is letting us know a thing or two about these "weird sisters. I would ask my students to speculate.
They do not seem to be as malevolent as Macbeth will later become. We do not hear of brutal murders at their hands. Yet they are not dutiful wives or carefully chaperoned daughters. They are disorderly and disheveled, outside of society's norm, and worst of all, seem to enjoy that position. The Films Lady Macbeth and the witches have been depicted a wide variety of ways in theater performance and screen adaptations.
Directors differ widely in their opinion of the proper way to portray her.
Macbeth and Issues of Gender
Students will be asked to examine several productions of Shakespeare to evaluate these differences. However, when he heard that Orson Welles was already doing the same, he postponed his project and completed his version in This black and white film is in Japanese with subtitles, but would still be exciting enough to hold the attention of many students.
Kurosawa follows the general outline of Shakespeare's story, though in a somewhat simplified version. He saw a connection between medieval Scotland and medieval Japan, while also being relevant to contemporary society.
One place where we see subtle differences is in his depiction of Asaji, his Lady Macbeth. Anthony Dawson says, "The scene mirrors and departs subtly from Macbeth.
Washizu is even less ambitious than his counterpart, more troubled and uncertain, while Asaji is much darker and more implacable than Lady Macbeth. She is the driving force throughout and. What are her exact words? Kurosawa creates a connection between the witch only one in this screen version and Lady Asaji. He uses elements of Noh Theater to portray both women while not doing so with the male characters.
Dawson also sees a strong connection between the two female characters in the film. He states, "In Throne of Blood there are really only two women, and they are mirrors of each other - Asaji and the strange, ambiguously gendered spirit in the forest, who spins her wheel and knows, perhaps even controls, the fates of vain and mortal men who 'end in fear.
This witch is notable for her androgynous appearance. She is dressed like a woman, but appears to be a man in woman's clothing. This is taking women with beards one step further, and is in complete contrast to the very lady-like appearance of Lady Asaji. Why this appearance of the witch chosen will prompt much discussion, I hope. Lady Asaji has the most steely, single-minded persona imaginable, practically unmoving behind her white mask as she proposes the murder. However, like Lady Macbeth, her "womanly" fear appears once Washizu leaves the room to commit the deed.
The studio producing Hamlet was so enamored of Laurence Olivier and this project that no expense was spared, either in the making of the film, its subsequent advertising, or its distribution. Life magazine featured an eleven-page spread trumpeting its arrival. The international press waited for the film in gleeful anticipation. Welles, on the other hand, was derided from the start.
He had to make do with the smallest budget, and reviews panned his movie from all directions, especially in comparison to Olivier's Hamlet. Life magazine's review said, "'Orson Welles doth foully slaughter Shakespeare in a dialect version of his 'Tragedy of Macbeth'" Anderegg Nonetheless, it is today appreciated by many film critics and is an interesting film to compare to the other adaptations of Macbeth.
Welles depicts a world that is primitive, and the sets are sparse, but in fact this lends to the atmosphere of an eleventh century Scotland. These incongruently juxtaposed images and sounds not only set the tone and create the atmosphere for the events to follow, but provide as well, in microcosm, an exposition of Welles's mode and methods: Anderegg's view of the film could serve as an excellent starting point for students to consider the rest of the film The scene based on Act I, scene seven between Lady Macbeth and Macbeth, when he first arrives home after the fateful predictions, contains numerous line deletions, a reordering of lines, and an execution of the traitor Cawdor in the background as Macbeth kisses his wife.
We first glimpse Lady Macbeth lying on a bed of furs, such as the ancient Scottish might have used, and she is reading Macbeth's letter. She writhes on the bed as she reads it. When she speaks to deliver her "unsex me here" speech, she has a Scottish accent. This Lady Macbeth is not young, but when Macbeth returns to the castle, the sexual relationship is apparent. According to Gil, Welles' idiosyncratic film techniques are ripe with meaning.
Drawing my students' attention to the various possibilities of how one scene can be filmed would be fertile territory for interpreting a filmmaker's intent. We can look at camera angles, such as high and low shots, as well as how often a director has placed cuts in his scenes. For instance, if the director uses quick cuts, as opposed to Welles' famous long shots, what mood does it create?
What meaning, if any, can we infer? The witches in this screen adaptation are kept at a distance from the viewer. We are not able to see their faces clearly, nor can we see whether or not they possess the beards mentioned by Banquo.
They have long, wild hair and are holding what appear to be large pitchforks. Sarah Hatchuel says, "The forked staffs they hold connote evil and demonism, and are directly opposed to the Christian crosses carried by the Scotsman who are recent converts from Paganism throughout the film" 3.
In fact, Welles has inserted a scene with soldiers in prayer on their knees that was not written by Shakespeare.
Production Function: Meaning, Definitions and Features
I would ask students to consider reasons for Welles to have inserted this religious motif. Welles takes a definite stand on who is at fault for the tragedy.
The witches "pour ingredients and shape, out of clay, a voodoo doll representing Macbeth. Lawrence Guntner notices, Macbeth is therefore presented as 'their creation and their toy'" Hatchuel 3.
Roman Polanski's Macbeth Polanski directed the most bloody version of Macbeth shortly after the Manson murders of Sharon Tate, his wife, and the other unfortunate visitors in his home. Anyone watching in would have been thinking about these much publicized brutal murders. Several very violent scenes, in fact, have been added to the film that do not appear in Shakespeare's original play. For instance, we not only hear about the murder of Lady Macduff and family.
We see the murderers enter her private accommodations, finger and break her belongings much as the Manson murderers may have done at Polanski's own homeand we are also "treated" to the brutal rape of a servant in the background.
It is also interesting to note that the executive producer of the film is Hugh Hefner. Students may want to speculate what influence someone like Hugh Hefner may have had on the production. Of all the film adaptations of Macbeth using Shakespeare's original language, this Lady Macbeth is the most young, beautiful, and sexual.
Was it really necessary for the witches to appear naked in the cave when Macbeth returns to question them? Francesca Annis as Lady Macbeth is shown naked as well once she has lost her mind, her long hair covers all frontal nudity.
Do these choices have a valid reason that adds to our understanding of the play? Polanski's three witches are strange in appearance, though none have beards. He begins the film with a strong hint that the witches are responsible for what happens when he shows them on a beach digging a hole, and in that hole they place a dismembered hand holding a dagger.
In this adaptation, women appear to be more powerful, and they are more brutally treated. Is there a connection? It was released inbut does not seem at all dated to students in I love showing this film after we read Macbeth because it takes not only the spirit of Shakespeare's play, but imitates nearly every nuance and event while updating the language and setting. Instead of witches, Mikey and Bankie suddenly find themselves in the strange parlor of an old woman with two male companions who goes into a trance and tells them their fortune.
Instead of thanes of Scotland, the characters are members of the mob, pledging total loyalty to the "Padrino. The close connection between Mikey and his wife is made quite apparent in the scene where he lies naked in bed next to his clothed wife while she massages his neck. It is still possible to show older high school students because his leg is strategically crossed.
You do see John Turturro's backside, however. The movie is "R" rated, I believe, mainly for its violence. Is it merely to demonstrate the sexual relationship, or is it there to add to the sense of Mikey's vulnerability? How is this modern-day woman, this mob wife, portrayed? Is she as strong or as weak as we imagine Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth to be? One would imagine that a powerful woman today would be more acceptable, but yet she is still the woman behind the man urging him on to take his rightful place at the top.
Is the powerful woman of today real, or does her position in the world of organized crime change her circumstances? I look forward to hearing the opinions of my students. Objectives I love teaching Shakespeare's plays to high school students. The plots are exciting, and I get to see my students progress from needing every single line explained in detail to being able to get the gist of the play on their own by the time we are half way through.
This is exciting to me. In the past, when we finished reading the play, as a reward and as a method of reviewing, we would watch at least one screen adaptation in full. This curriculum unit is intended to try another approach. It would never be possible to show more than two films in class in their entirety. With all there is to accomplish, even that much is most likely too much.
With the use of film clips that focus the attention of students on particular elements of study, we have a case of "less is more.
All of them involve increasing students' critical thinking and skills of analysis in one way or another. It has been my experience that by asking students to compare two things - two characters, two stories, two poems, two styles of writing, or in this case, two versions of the same work of literature one a play, the other a filmmore becomes apparent in each.
Someone once said that to know happiness, one must also know sadness.
Shakespeare's Sources for Macbeth: King James and Witchcraft, and More
The output per unit of both the fixed and the variable input declines throughout this stage. At the boundary between stage 2 and stage 3, the highest possible output is being obtained from the fixed input. Shifting a production function[ edit ] By definition, in the long run the firm can change its scale of operations by adjusting the level of inputs that are fixed in the short run, thereby shifting the production function upward as plotted against the variable input.
If fixed inputs are lumpy, adjustments to the scale of operations may be more significant than what is required to merely balance production capacity with demand. For example, you may only need to increase production by million units per year to keep up with demand, but the production equipment upgrades that are available may involve increasing productive capacity by 2 million units per year.
Shifting a production function If a firm is operating at a profit-maximizing level in stage one, it might, in the long run, choose to reduce its scale of operations by selling capital equipment.
By reducing the amount of fixed capital inputs, the production function will shift down. The beginning of stage 2 shifts from B1 to B2. The unchanged profit-maximizing output level will now be in stage 2.