Models of supervision and the supervisory relationship and their evidence base survey questionnaire. 78 .. come as near as we can to rational answers to the questions, before inserting have engaged in supervision research. The first. To that end, isomorphism is often referred to as a clinical and supervisory may replicate that pattern by responding when the client questions what she should. pertain to supervision of marriage and family therapist interns and trainees written by SUPERVISORS TWENTY-FIVE MOST OFTEN ASKED QUESTIONS. I
Furthermore, the literature comparing online and FtF Participants reported affiliation with varied supervisory supervision is mixed Chapman ; Nelson et al.
The remaining participants were employed in a when FtF supervision was not readily available. Half supervisees professionally relate via online technologies. The reported practice patterns were sim- visory modalities, and 2 how they perceived the value of ilar to those of a national survey of MFTs Northey In addition, nearly half of the respondents The remaining 22 Supervisees were between the ages of 22 and visors working in a variety of settings.
We also such practices. Finally, standing Gambrel and Butler For those who completed the sur- and Butler Our definition deviates in that we col- vey in paper-based format, a research assistant entered the lected both statistical data and narrative data in the same data into the online survey tool QuestionPro. The section of the survey presented in the current pub- Data Analysis lication focuses on supervision, and contained the follow- ing mixed data items—18 quantitative items and four open- Our interest was in 1 understanding the frequency by ended questions.
Of the four open-ended survey questions, which supervisors and supervisees participated in online only themes from the one regarding appropriateness of supervisory modalities, and 2 how they perceived the online supervision are presented, because the other three value of online modalities in the supervisory relationship. Quantitative items using technology, where t-tests were conducted.
Responses included a number of modes of online communication in to the open-ended question regarding the circumstances supervision e. This method was selected because of the purpose degree. An integral part of qualitative research, regardless of the Grant funding from the Alaska Association for Marriage associated methodology, is reflexivity. Statements about and Family Therapy AkAMFT supported this study, researcher reflexivity are helpful in making transparent the which was approved via a university-based Institutional position of the researchers, including their roles, assump- Review Board.
In involvement of the researchers Blumer and Murphy ; the conference recruitment phase, participants were given Merriam Of these areas, arguably the one of most either a link to our online survey on a recruitment flyer or a value to note is the relationship of the researchers to the hard copy of the survey itself. In the Internet-recruitment study, particularly to the funding organization—the phase, we advertised the study via email to a all program AkAMFT. For supervisees, the average supervision time ingly becoming more common out of necessity there are conducted online was.
Seventy-one percent of the supervisee sample and need for both across the state, including in rural and remote Email from which to draw from in engaging such practices. For every other modality author was invited by the first author to co-conduct the e. She was invited to assist with peer participating in video conferencing for supervision See reviewing of the qualitative data, as well as the co-au- Table 1.
All of the qualitative responses for the participants Comfort with Online Supervision Modalities were entered into a spreadsheet. First, the coders independently visees and 26 supervisors.
Fifty-four percent reported reviewed the dataset as a whole to attain a general feeling some degree of comfort with online supervision as impression. There were no significant differences, how- compared themes for agreement and overlap and then ever, in how supervisees and supervisors experienced compiled a consensus list of themes.
In in Supervision addition, further credibility, confirmability, reliability and validity of the findings was affirmed through the mixed Three themes emerged regarding when participants data nature of the study itself Creswell and Clark ; believed online supervision would be appropriate: Meeting Results distance needs was described by participants as the need for online supervision when one or all of the members of Frequency of Online Communication in Supervision the supervisory relationship are geographically situated in a rural or remote location, or when one of the supervisory Frequency data of online communication in supervision are participants is unavailable due to extenuating circum- reported in Table 1.
Overall, hours of FtF supervision stances such as an emergency or at times of travel. For example, it could be advantageous to gain tiality within supervisory and clinical practices had been greater clarity on the content of the exchanges, as they may established. Future researchers could supervision] could be used as frequently as needed.
Another question raised by this study is the extent to Discussion which the use of email in supervisory relationships interferes with work-life balance. Emails are classified as asyn- One of the purposes of this study was to determine how chronous methods of communication, meaning one sends a MFT supervisors and supervisees use technology in the message assuming that there will not be a steady stream of supervision process.
Our findings indicated that email is the responses as if in real-time FtF communication. Although primary way that technology is utilized in supervision.
Our results indicated that more supervision is our home life e. In this way, it might taking place via FtF format versus online, 2.
Finally, we were curious very least, the perceptions of the parameters of the supervi- about what MFT supervisees and supervisors believed to be sory relationship. Thus, supervisors and supervisees need to the most appropriate uses of technology in the supervision establish clear contracts with regard to the use of technology relationship.
Participants reported that online supervision in their relationships so as to protect the boundaries of the was appropriate to meet distance needs, as an adjunct to relationship, and their work together. Our participants also FtF supervision, and when comfort and confidentiality have believed the use of technology was appropriate when com- been established in the relationship.
Therefore, a conversation about expectations around tech- Implications for Future Research and Supervision nology usage may contribute to structure and promoting Practice safety, thus increasing the level of comfort supervisees have with their supervisors.
Our finding that half of our participants used email to Online communication as an adjunct to FtF supervision communicate within their supervisory relationships at least was stated as acceptable in terms of meeting supervisory Author's personal copy Contemp Fam Ther needs at a distance in our study, which again confirms the Due to our lack of provision of definitions of online prior literature Bacigalupe ; Coursol ; McAdams supervision or web-based communication in the current and Wyatt ; Perry ; Rousmaniere and Freder- study, participants may or may not have had a shared ickson ; Vaccaro and Lambie The benefit of definition of such practices.
Those within a supervisory distance supervision becomes critical in cases where there relationship may not recognize they are engaging in some are not physically enough supervisors in a given location to degree of online practice, because they may hold a narrow provide supervision, or when those available are not ade- perception of what actually constitutes being online Blu- quately qualified.
Implications of using these technologies mer and Murphy ; Hertlein et al. Narrow ways at a distance may have the effect of growing the MFT field.
Other mediums that are used more frequently, but an inherent barrier to receiving such credentials. This finding As the use of email communication in supervision correlates with reports of the importance of having a strong appears to be relatively common, one of the implications supervisory working alliance in order to have successful for ethical supervisory practice is to include information supervision in online and offline environments e.
Super- ; Rousmaniere et al. It would appear that supervisory contracts that reflects a general overview and many in our study believed that, unless this kind of rela- related guidelines regarding the use of email based com- tionship is established first, then supervision online would munications in supervision Hertlein et al.
Included not be appropriate or perhaps would be unsuccessful. This in these guidelines could be information about the contexts explanation echoes that of Wetchler et al. Information regarding when it is appro- ance needs to be the first stage in engaging in supervisory priate to email within supervisory relationships, such as practices at a distance.
Other guidelines could focus on et al. Instances that distance, as well as how to conduct email communication call for crisis management, or when a supervisor is not so that it is confidential, safe, and secured, and with clear immediately present, may also be a challenge affiliated boundaries. Supervisors may simplify the creating of such with online supervision though the same could be true for guidelines through application of what is the only estab- geographically close supervisors Abbass et al.
Ethical and legal concerns like relationships rooted in the MFT field that is directly maintenance of confidentiality and compliance with Health applicable to online supervisory and clinical practices—the Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIPAA are Couple and Family Therapy Technology Framework see among the most commonly reported challenges with regard Blumer; Twist and Hertlein, in press.
These concerns might explain the apparent to explore, particularly as it is likely to grow in practice, as apprehension in using only online technology to fully technology continues to grow in use with each successive support a supervision practice. In addi- this article. Finally, more information on how to build a strong supervisory working alliance via technology and Abbass, A.
Web-conference supervision for new media would be informative. Psychother- apy, 48, — E-supervision a decade later. As aforementioned, because we were interested in obtain- Blumer, M.
Ecological elements in couple and family therapy technological practice. MFT Courier, 28 22—5. Couple and family therapy technology venues, which means that we cannot calculate a truly practices: A framework for ethical engagement. Family Therapy accurate overall response rate. We primarily conducted the Magazine, 40— Another area that Blumer, M.
Honoring our feminist participants. In general, there are stark differences in the mentors. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy: Family Therapy Magazine, 16— Retrieved from et al. We were interested in recording the frequency http: Towards the development of educational core competencies for of such communication, which might be a factor that couple and family therapy technology practices. Contemporary interacts with frequency or mode of communication.
An International Journal, 37, — Coping through lack of a definition of what constitutes online supervisory families of choice and therapeutic means. Contemporary Family practice may have influenced our results. An International Journal, 33, — Cybersupervision of entry level practicum supervisees: The effect on acquisition of counselor competence in online practices.
Lastly, although we gathered data from and confidence Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Thus, from this study we Chapman, R. Further examination of syn- have a picture of the perceptions of online supervision from chronous and asynchronous modalities in counseling practicum supervisory participants independent from each another, supervision. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50, — In future research, Cheon, H. The influence of supervisor and supervisee matching, garnering information in these areas of limitation would be role conflict, and supervisory relationship on supervisee satis- of benefit.
An International Jour- nal, 31, 52— Acknowledgments This project was funded by a grant from the Coker, J. Alaska Association for Marriage and Family Therapy obtained by the Cyber supervision in the first practicum: Implications for first and second authors.
Parts of this manuscript were previously research and practice.
If the science PhD student is a member of a positional "family" the social scientist experiences socialisation as a scholar in a personal "family". This is best described by drawing comparisons with the scientist's experience. The social science PhD student is an isolated individual.Sadhguru Answers Is It Wrong To Have Sex Before Marriage? - Youth and Truth @ JNU - Mystics of India
Deem and Brehony, They do not experience other social scientists doing research alongside them: There is no tradition of the research group socialising together regularly. The group does not publish jointly as a team with all the names on the products.
Teams do not go to conferences together, have regular colloquia, share the same equipment. However, the social science PhD is freer to negotiate an identity. The expectation is that she is an autonomous scholar who will soon be an intellectual equal.
Students choose their own topic, theory, method and fieldsite. The project is individualised: The supervisor may be controlling the topic and its execution in practice, but if so, the control is exercised by persuasion, negotiation and suggestions. The personal style of the student, issues such as the extent to which they are 'cue-deaf' Delamont et al.
In the next section this distinction is elaborated and exemplified using the data. The Roles of Doctoral Students The occupational socialisation of the doctoral student in science occurs in an hierarchical research group, in which the positional logic rules.
When postgraduate students meet the unpredictable, real world, of their doctoral research, they find themselves alternatively elated and required to grit their teeth and carry on trying. Delamont and Atkinson, They account for their ability to carry on with the work by virtue of their engagement in a supportive social context: This pedagogic continuity is a fundamental element in the lives of doctoral students of science which enables them to come to terms with the vagaries of experimental research without abandoning the notion that science is for the most part a very stable and highly convergent activity.
Most science is not in fact revolutionary. On the contrary much of science concentrates on addressing problems which arise out of, and are solvable within, the existing framework of research. Despite enthusiasm for refutation and revolution, most science activity leads to a large amount of permanent knowledge, devices and practice.
One explanation for this and which lends support to the proposition that science stands apart from the real world, is that science is a 'self vindicating' activity. Hacking has described how this stability arises and is maintained because scientific practice is like a rope with many strands. Even if one of the strands is severed, the others persevere. In other words science encompasses several traditions, including theoretical, experimental and instrumental, and a break in one tradition is not necessarily fatal for the others.
The structure of PhD science research functioned to maintain stability through continuity and mutual dependence: Using Hacking's analogy of a rope we can see how the interests of group members are mutually intertwined in a linear process through which the work of individuals is shaped and developed. The research group provides both intellectual continuity, and pedagogic continuity because new entrants are taught by the more established members. Earth science, physical geography and biochemistry PhD students continue to expect, and indeed do, produce results from their experiments and from their fieldwork.
Furthermore on the basis of these results they expect to, and a large percentage do, successfully complete PhD's. This raises the following question. How, when scientific work is apparently so capricious in nature and unpredictable in outcome, can doctoral candidates predict the successful outcome of their labours? One answer is that research groups provide intellectual and practical environments in which manageable projects are constructed.
The construction of a PhD project involves the identification of realistic goals. Furthermore these goals are intended to be realisable within the allotted period of time for study.
The doctoral candidates whom we interviewed were not responsible for identifying their initial research topics nor the outline structure of their intended study. This task had been accomplished by the supervisor who assumed full responsibility for the identification of projects and attracting necessary funding. Thus the assignment of thesis topics to students is part of their experience of pedagogic continuity. Many of the students' accounts of their work in the laboratory sciences are couched in terms of problems and projects being determined for them.
They construct research problems that arise from the research programmes of the laboratory, the research group or the group leader.
The Supervisory Relationship Questionnaire (SRQ)
They are not necessarily derived initially from a personal commitment or personal relationship with the topic of their research. For example, Antonia Viera at Forthamstead said of the topic given to her, 'It was a definite topic. The research project was fairly set out when I arrived and it had an outline to it and how it was theoretically supposed to go'.
Her project had not proceeded according to plan, however, partly Antonia suggested because, 'I'd come from America and had very little lab experience'. A Baynesholme student, Karl Gunderson, told us, 'Professor Gantry tells me what experiments to do, and other people in the lab show me how to do them. The students expect the supervisor to choose a manageable project, and to alert them if it is going seriously wrong and needs to be changed. For example Alma Strottle, at Ribblethorpe, said: It's a very new technology, very new technology, its been done by one other lab.
I'm taking it and using it for something quite big really, and they've been using it on a very small scale. So whether I can get the technology to work is another matter. I'm aware that it is going to be difficult.
Dr Dewry is aware that it's going to be difficult, and he's got a kind of thing up his sleeve if, in a year's time, I'm still not getting anywhere. So at the end of the day I kind of know I'm going to get a PhD even if it's not exactly what it should be on. Similarly Elissa Tyrone at Baynesholme believed: But at the time I applied for Ottercombe there were actual research objectives written by the two supervisors.
So it was all more or less set up Leo Gilligan, Earth Sciences, Ottercombe. It's been drummed into you that its interesting so you believe its interesting. I need pushing in some direction because I'm not the best judge, at this stage, which direction I should go in Ben Safford, Geography, Tolleshurst You've got to be a very exceptional person to come up with your own project.
Normally the idea is the supervisor's which he knows is feasible - he knows it has the potential to be a PhD. I feel that X supervises very well because he always knows if it's on the rails. Jim Vorhees of Tolleshurst Research students thus expressed their commitment to a particular research topic as something that was derived from external sources, rather than in terms of a personal choice or commitment.
One can characterise their academic identities, loyalties and commitments in terms of ascribed positions, in contrast to the more personalised identities of research students in the social sciences.
The research students undoubtedly found personal commitment and identity out of the work that had been allocated to them, but the initial source of such identification was externally derived. Doctoral students in the social sciences have experienced a different enculturation at undergraduate level, and come to doctoral level with a contrasting position.
Independent thought, and criticism of the dominant scholars in the field has been rewarded throughout the first degree. The PhD student in social science has to take personal responsibility for his or her own work. This implies a more intellectually equal relationship with the supervisor, which causes uncertainties and isolations. There is a fine line between independence, isolation and disorientation for the student. The following two supervisors are extreme examples of the style: I don't feel that one should be poking one's nose into a student's fieldwork.
It's very much an independent business and My own personal feeling is that the student has got to be independent enough to make their own decisions.
The marriage analogy: personal and positional relationships in PhD supervision
When a project does not work, the supervisor: She spent a couple of years doing fieldwork, and eventually sent back one fieldwork report on the geology of the place She kept writing to say she was floundering and I kept writing to her to suggest angles of approach and she didn't seem to take them on. Here supervisors explicitly place ownership of the research on the student, and see their role as essentially advisory, not managerial or, indeed, supervising.
They are behaving like the members of a personal family: The PhD student 'owns' his or her project, as an individual. Not only are any publications the student's own responsibility and property: In anthropology this is very common: However it is also the case in other disciplines, so that the doctoral thesis on transport in Balham gives a basis for reputation and expertise a decade later.
Failing students in social science were those who did not thrive in the 'personal' research style. Our most disillusioned respondent recognised that: