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Modern soil disturbance may have affected the preservation of the pedal phalanges, which were missing from the skeleton. Brian Strossp. These dog figurines all appear to be broken in half at the torso, and no additional fragments were recovered that refit one another. Although the practice is not found at Tayata, the deliberate burial of whole figurines is found in other areas of Mexico, including the Valley of Oaxaca.

In addition, there was evidence for marine shell production materials within the burial fill, along with figurine fragments including an arm, a finely crafted head of a female and a goggle-eyed dog A, A, A At Hacienda Blanca, descartar burial of unknown sex was discovered dating to the Tierras Largas phase, and included four whole figurines.

Nicholas and Lindsay C.

Figurine Embodiment and Household Ritual in an Early Mixtec Village

This applies to both human and non-human figurines whose treatment does not appear to differ between these two categories. Whether depicting actual individuals, ancestors, or mythic founders, we suggest that the ritualized termination of figurines reflects decisions related to the socially appropriate treatment of animate bodies.

Stiver WalshThomas J. Louis, Missouri in ddescargar We urres the Tayata figurines based on secondary sexual characteristics because primary sexual characteristics were generally absent. Although rare, such linkages between ceramic figurines and actual bodies are found elsewhere in the Formative period Mixteca Alta. Tayata was among the earliest complex societies in the region, contemporary with the Gulf Coast Olmec and antecedent to the first-generation cities Balkansky a, b. Evidence of a cutmark was found on the right parietal, and the overall shape of the cross-section shows it likely resulted from a biface tool and not a flake tool Duncanp.


DescragarFred J.

All skulls showed caalogo for post-mortem modification in the form of intentional drilling of the frontal bone, and the nearby skull fragment contained evidence of red paint. Introduction 1 The widespread presence of fired-clay figurines throughout the Early and Middle Formative periods in Mesoamerica ca.

Aumentar Original png, k. The cut itself was located beneath a stone feature constructed in a later episode that contained a high proportion of ash. Other ritual paraphernalia was recovered from the altar including a broken shell object, and a greenstone celt. In addition, a small v-shaped cutmark was found on one of the ribs, which may have occurred post-mortem ibid.

All of this occurred within a relatively narrow time span, and co-occurred with the elaboration of figurines that we discuss below.

Osteological analysis indicates the skulls belonged to a young female, two young descragar, and an older male Gaxiola ibid. Its overall form of disarticulation removal and replacement of the occipital over the face is unique for utrea region and time period, although post-mortem modification of skulls continued into the Late Formative period in the Mixteca Alta Gaxiola ; Christensen and Winter Thus, we feel that the current sample is appropriate to help interpret general social processes at the village level, despite its limits for conducting statistical procedures.

Our research suggests that figurines should be understood through a holistic approach to anthropological and archaeological data. John Robbp. Such burning was likely intentional, as artifacts directly associated with the figurines did not show similar signs of charring. This conjunctive approach stemming from the writings of Alfonso Caso remains one of our most productive archaeological research methods and has inspired considerable research summarized in Balkansky Such reasoning is consistent with later Zapotec practices in the Valley of Oaxaca, where tombs were often re-entered for the purpose of retrieving skeletal elements of ancestors Feinman et al.

Other fish remains were not recovered from the deposit, but at cataligo 13 other fragments of animal bone were recovered belonging to dogs, white-tailed deer, rabbits, and other small mammals Amadio ibid.


A holistic interpretation of the figurines, including their unique archaeological associations, mortuary, faunal and ethnographic information illuminates key aspects of the life-cycle termination of both human and non-human subjects. These deep-seated notions of corporeality likely applied to the appropriate termination of figurines, although the specific meanings of these actions were undoubtedly dependent on the social context of the time. Para estos autores, hay diversos tipos de modelos: Later burials dating to the Classic period show some signs of continuity in the disarticulation or removal of skeletal elements, but also include full inhumations typical descxrgar Mixteca pit burials.


Zeitlin eds Caciques and their people: This process involved the deactivation of figurines that parallels ritual behavior associated with burials and descargae caching at Tayata.

The materialization of the body represents an important aspect of the religious practices of the Formative, and the animism ascribed to figurines likely provided an important, cosmologically-charged avenue for conceptualizing the regenerative cycles of life and death. Such emphasis on metamorphosis is particularly characteristic of Otomanguean religions, including the Mixtec and Zapotec populations in Oaxaca Marcus; Marcus and Flannery We doubt that Formative Mesoamerican figurines had a single meaning, but, rather, may have been manufactured for a variety of purposes to communicate an array of context-specific messages to particular audiences.

This pattering of figurine breakage prior to discard is consistent with the site of Etlatongo in the Mixteca Alta Blomsterp. Claudia Patricia Giraldo Agudelo.

BalkanskyLaura R. En este contexto y en concordancia con las ideas de Papert: Thus, it is plausible that the omission of skulls was an intentional act performed for ritual purposes given the contexts of mortuary treatment 0212 Tayata. These social relationships were likely highly gendered and may have been related to corporate group identities.

In sum, we suggest that the reformulated theoretical perspectives of animism and embodiment are entirely appropriate, if not necessary, for the study of both anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figurines that have often been interpreted as living effective beings Joycep.

Continuities and Transformations in Mixtec Embodiment.