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Although the Kleihauer-Betke test is inexpensive and requires no special equipment, it lacks standardization and precision, and may not be accurate in conditions with elevated F-cells.

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As described previously, DVI represented the most frequent partial D type in China with a total of 36 samples. The half-life varied between individuals, with a median of 23 days. Alternative strategies may be evaluated in the future, with repeated administration of antenatal prophylaxis at term rather than conventional postpartum administration of anti-D.

These anti-D alloantibodies may lead to undesirable sequelae such as hemolytic disease of the newborn HDN. We compared adherence to anti-D prophylaxis recommendations between our institution’s physician-dependent antenatal approach and the protocol-based postpartum approach. Abstract Most women have only very small amounts of fetal blood in their circulations following pregnancy and delivery: We analyzed patient files of RhD-negative pregnant women seen from to at the State Reference Center.

Among weak D samples, 76 weak D type 1 Prenatal noninvasive determination of fetal Rh status is an important aid to the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. There was one death during the study period associated to the procedure.

Although anti-D prophylaxis has greatly reduced the rate of Rh-immunization, there remain women who sensitize during or after pregnancy because of inadequate prophylaxis. Hemolutica found detectable levels of anti-D IgG within two weeks of parturition in 11 of 12 women. Services on Demand Journal.


Sensitisation to non-D group antibodies continues to occur owing to the lack of available prophylaxis for other blood-group antigens. Anti-d in rh d -negative pregnant women: Memorial Blood Center of Minneapolis, Minnesota. This study shows research results on the persistence of RhD alloimmunization in pregnant hemolitixa seen in the public healthcare network in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through patient file analysis and interviews with administrators, health professionals, and patients.


The detection of antibodies was performed. Adverse events related to exchange transfusion in newborn infants with hemolytic disease: Se realizaron entrevistas con 15 actores sociales, individualmente. Detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage. Study results were adjusted for biases and combined, first in a random-effects meta-analysis and then in a random-effects meta-regression analysis. Determination of these variables would enable optimalization of guidelines for D alloimmunization prophylaxis.

Hematology analyzers with flow cytometry capabilities may be adapted for fetal cell detection, thus giving clinical laboratories a potentially attractive automated alternative for quantifying FMH. Services on Demand Journal. During her third pregnancy, she was genotyped as a partial D antigen, which was reported as Rh-negative. The purpose of this study was to compare adherence to prophylaxis recommendations for antenatal and postnatal anti-D immunoglobulin administration.

Incidence of adverse events was determined, as well as the relative risk of each adverse event. Most FMHs of 30 mL or more occur before labor, delivery, hhemolitica cesarean section. Anti-D antibody was detected.

The majority of adverse events were asymptomatic, and low platelet count doenva the most frequent one. The presence of fetal DNA in mothers of D-negative infants was confirmed in all 10 boys and in 14 of 16 girls. All 3 RHD exon sequences were detected in 68 of 72 mothers of D-positive infants. O armazenamento dos dados foi feito por meio do programa Excel Microsoft Corp.

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We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction on fetal DNA derived from maternal plasma to determine fetal Rh status. The interviews revealed factors contributing to persistence of the problem, such as: Our results showed that the use of different methods and anti-D reagents in the serologic routine analysis revealed D variants that can be further investigated. Revisions in laboratory procedures for Rh typing may present as a change in the Rh blood type of pregnant women-and as a change in their eligibility for Rh immune globulin.

  ISO 6194-3 PDF

Molecular methods can help to differentiate between partial D and weak D and to characterize the weak D types, providing additional information of value in the determination perknatal D phenotypes.

Erros in anti-D immunoglobulin administration: Las entrevistas presentaron factores que contribuyeron a la persistencia del problema como: When the FMH was mL or more, 15 of 41 infants did not survive Rh-negative women with FMH of more than 30 mL of Rh-positive whole blood are at increased risk of Rh immunization, and thus the outcome of their future pregnancies also may be affected.

Kinetic profiles for anti-D levels were generated from the concentration values at predetermined sampling time points.


Group 1, neonates admitted solely for asymptomatic hyperbilirubinemia before the exchange transfusion; Group 2, neonates with other medical conditions besides the hemolytic jaundice.

To determine the incidence of adverse events associated with exchange-transfusions performed during the past ten years and to evaluate if there is association between the severity of patient’s clinical condition before the procedure and the incidence of adverse doencca.

Although the molecular basis underlying the partial D phenotype has been investigated in several races, data from Chinese populations are rare. Red-cell and platelet alloimmunisation in pregnancy.


The weak D and partial D phenotypes are caused by many different RHD alleles encoding aberrant D proteins, resulting in distinct serologic phenotypes and the possibility of anti-D immunization.

We describe a case illustrating the effect of the new laboratory methods on a woman’s candidacy for Rh immune hemo,itica and present recommendations for interpreting the new test results. This development is highly likely to allow use of anti-D in only those pregnant women carrying rhesus-positive fetuses. Advances in molecular biology have led to the successful determination of fetal blood group using free fetal DNA from maternal blood.