A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to. Hydrogels are used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, vehicles for drug delivery, actuators for optics and fluidics, and model extracellular matrices for biological. In this investigation, we successfully prepared extremely stretchable, transparent and tough DN hydrogels by using neutral synthetic polymer–poly(vinyl alcohol).

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The membrane remained intact, vibrated, and recovered its initial flat configuration after the vibration was damped out. When the proportion of acrylamide was increased, the elastic modulus of the hybrid gel was reduced Fig.

Energy, Physics Drug vehicle.

New Process for 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels

After one pair of G blocks unzip, the high stress shifts to the neighboring pair of G blocks and causes them to unzip also Supplementary Fig. Baumberger T, Ronsin Highlu. The diversity of weak and strong molecular integrations makes hybrid gels of various kinds a fertile area of research.

Haraguchi K, Takehisa T.

By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. In contrast, the polyacrylamide gel showed negligible hysteresis, and the sample fully recovered its original length after unloading.

When the stretch was small, the elastic modulus of the hybrid gel was 29kPa, which was close to the sum of the elastic modulus of the alginate gel 17kPa and that of the polyacrylamide gel 8kPa. Lamellar bilayers as reversible sacrificial bonds to toghen hydrogel: Mohamadreza Nassajian Moghadam hydrogells, Dominique P.


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Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Photo shows the open lattice of 3-D printed material, with materials having different characteristics toughh strength and flexibility indicated by different colors. After the first loading the gel does not recover from the damage; on subsequent loadings the fracture energy is much reduced [ 21 ].

For the notch to turn into a running crack, only the chains directly ahead the notch needs to break. Here we demonstrate extremely stretchable and tough hydrogels by mixing two types of crosslinked polymers: The area between the loading and unloading curves of a gel gave the energy dissipated per unit volume Fig.

Evaluation of fracture toughness of cartilage by micropenetration. Crack blunting and the strength of soft elastic solids. The internal damage was much better healed by storing the gel at an elevated temperature for some time before reloading Fig. That is, the properties at rupture of the hybrid gel far exceeded those of either of its parents. Supplementary Information is linked to the online version of the paper at www.

Hydrogels of superior stiffness, toughness, stretchability and recoverability will improve the performance in these applications, and likely open up new areas of application for this class of materials.

In addition, the previous work was not able to produce complex 3-D structures with tough hydrogels, Zhao says.

SternbergWerner WeitschiesAnne Seidlitz J Am Ceram Soc. Microcapsules and microcarriers for in situ cell delivery.

Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels – Semantic Scholar

Upon hitting the membrane, the ball stretched the membrane greatly and then bounced back. Measurement of the fracture toughness of some contact lens hydrogels. On the basis of our experimental findings, we discuss mechanisms of deformation and energy dissipation. When the hybrid gel is stretched, the polyacrylamide network remains intact and stabilizes the deformation, while the alginate network unzips progressively, with closely spaced ionic crosslinks unzipping at a small stretch, followed by more and more widely spaced ionic crosslinks unzipping as the stretch increases.


Independent control of rigidity and toughness of polymeric hydrogels. A ball of a higher kinetic energy, however, caused the membrane to rupture after large deformation Supplementary Movie 3.

By contrast, in a polyacrylamide hydrogel, the polyacrylamide chains form a network by covalent crosslinks. In both polyacrylamide gel and alginate gel, rupture results from localized damage, leading to small fracture energies.

tohgh Enhanced proliferation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on tough hydrogel substrates. Fatigue and fracture of elastomers.

The existing works, however, have demonstrated fracture energy comparable to, or lower than, that of the double-network gels.

Despite the exciting achievements, much of the property space of hydrogels remains uncharted. Hydrogels with enhanced mechanical properties will expand the scope of their applications. Once a chain breaks, the energy stored in the entire chain is dissipated. The sample was then sealed in a polyethylene bag and submerged in mineral oil to prevent water from evaporation, and stored in a bath of a fixed temperature for a certain period of time.