In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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About 85 per cent of my “thinking” time was spent getting into a position to think, to make a decision, to learn something I needed to know. Each argument register has one cell for each character of jct ensemble e. Licklider explained “In the anticipated symbiotic partnership, men will set the goals, formulate the hypotheses, determine the criteria, and perform the evaluations.

Selfridge, “Pandemonium, a paradigm for learning,” Proc. It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership. Computing machines will do the routinizable work that must be done to prepare the way for insights and decisions in technical and scientific thinking. People directly linked to smart machines can perhaps function better than people acting without such support.

Computing machines are single-minded, constrained by their ” pre-programming.

Man-Computer Symbiosis

Laboratory experiments have indicated repeatedly that informal, parallel arrangements of lickliedr, coordinating their activities through reference to a large situation display, have important advantages over the arrangement, more widely used, that locates the operators at individual consoles and attempts to correlate their actions through the agency of a computer.

Relative to men, computing machines are very fast and very accurate, but they are constrained to perform only one or a few elementary operations at a time. Would 2, words be enough? The idea may be highlighted by comparing instructions ordinarily sjmbiosis to intelligent human beings with instructions ordinarily used with computers.


The argument is introduced into the memory first, one character at a time, starting at a standard initial register. Who, for example, would depart from Boston for Los Angeles with a detailed specification of the route? Aristotle said that formal knowledge begins with the establishment of definitions and proceeds to an analysis of various levels of cause-and-effect.

Hopefully, the computer will expedite the finding, delivering, and returning of books. In other operations, however, the contributions of men and equipment will be to some extent separable.

The vision of Licklider was that men would set the goals and that computers would do the routinized work. The latter specify precisely the individual steps to take and the sequence in which to take them.

J. C. R. Licklider

Print this record Show this as PDF file. In addition, the computer will serve as a statistical-inference, decision-theory, or game-theory machine to make elementary evaluations of suggested courses of action whenever there is enough basis to support a formal statistical analysis.

Altogether these things were pre-conditions for the development of networks. In addition, men will handle the very-low-probability situations when such situations do actually arise.

Perhaps the greater danger is the total dependency of a person on its licllider machine. Much more time went into finding or obtaining information than into digesting it.

He has worked in both fixed line and wireless environments across a wide variety of technologies in Europe and America. The differences in speed and in language, of course, pose difficulties that must be overcome. How desirable and how feasible is speech communication between human operators and computing machines?

David Scott Brown January 3, In symbiosiz sense, they do not store the arguments at all.

Nurmikko, “An implantable wireless neural interface for recording cortical ilcklider dynamics in moving primates,” Journal of Neural Engineering, Volume 10, Number 2, at URL http: Try it for a day or two and see how you make out.


To be rigorously correct, those characterizations would have to include many qualifiers. With such an input-output device, the operator would quickly learn to write or print in a manner legible to the machine. Commensalism refers to a symbiotic relationship where one of the organisms benefits greatly and the other is not harmed. If some form of tight coupling is achieved, the symbiotic relationship may be very positive and adaptive. It soon became apparent that the main thing I did was to keep records, and the project would have become an infinite regress if the keeping of records had been carried through in the detail envisaged in the initial plan.

The trie memory system, on the other hand, stores both the functions and the arguments. For real-time interaction on a truly symbiotic level, however, a vocabulary of aymbiosis words, e.

Licklider Describes “Man-Computer Symbiosis” :

In some technological systems, several men share responsibility for controlling vehicles whose behaviors interact. Many computers plot graphs on oscilloscope screens, and a few take advantage of the remarkable capabilities, graphical and symbolic, of the charactron display tube. Nevertheless, certain genotypic differences in capability between men and computers do stand out, and they have a bearing on the nature of possible man-computer symbiosis and the potential value of achieving it.

Dinneen, “Programming pattern recognition,” Proc. A commercial electronic digital voltmeter now reads aloud its indications, digit by digit.