The versatile Knorr pyrrole synthesis is an important route to pyrroles it involves the condensation of a β-keto ester with an α-amino ketone An important pyrrole synthesis, known as the Knorr synthesis, is of the cyclizative condensation type. An α-amino ketone furnishes a nucleophilic nitrogen and. Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Schematic representation of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole.

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Comparison of the relative reaction rates of all substrates R: The use of ammonia should give an uncharged intermediate and is therefore less affected by the choice of substitutents. The Knorr pyrrole synthesis is a widely used chemical reaction that synthesizes substituted pyrroles 3.

Modern practice is to add the oxime solution resulting from the nitrosation and the zinc dust gradually to a well-stirred solution of ethyl acetoacetate in glacial acetic acid. Both of these products resulted from the loss of the acetyl group from the inferred ethyl 2-aminoacetoacetate intermediate.

Chemische Berichte in German. This reduction consumes two equivalents of zinc and four equivalents of acetic acid. The usual way of doing this is from the relevant oximevia the Neber rearrangement.

The imine then tautomerizes to an enamine, followed by cyclization, elimination of water, and isomerization to the pyrrole. An improved synthesis of ethyl pyrrolecarboxylate esters from diethyl aminomalonate”. Journal of the Chemical Society Resumed: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

An important product of the Fischer-Fink synthesis was ethyl 4,5-dimethylpyrrolecarboxylate, made from ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate and 2-methyloxobutanal, in turn made by the Claisen condensation of 2-butanone with ethyl formate.


Venkataraman Amarnath has shown J. Hans Fischer and Emmy Fink found that Zanetti’s synthesis from 2,4-pentanedione and ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate gave ethyl 3,5-dimethylpyrrolecarboxylate as a trace byproduct.

Even thioesters have been successfully prepared, using the method. The resulting product, diethyl 3,5-dimethylpyrrole-2,4-dicarboxylate, has been called Knorr’s Pyrrole ever since. Knorr’s pyrrole can be derivatized in a number of useful manners. Amarnath tried to stabilize or destabilize the pyrole ion with different aryl groups as substituents:.

Preparation of Pyrroles G.

Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis

The original Knorr synthesis employed two equivalents of ethyl acetoacetateone of which was converted to ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate by dissolving it in glacial acetic acidand slowly adding one equivalent of saturated aqueous sodium nitriteunder external cooling.

The reaction is exothermicand the mixture can reach the boiling pyrrloe, if external cooling is not applied.

It will proceed at room temperature. Views Read Edit View history. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft in German. The mechanism requires zinc and acetic acid as catalysts. Annalen der Chemie in German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The 5-methyl group can be pyrroe oxidized to chloromethyl, aldehyde, or carboxylic acid functionality by the use of stoichiometric sulfuryl chloride in glacial acetic acid. The Journal of Organic Chemistry.

Knorr pyrrole synthesis

The substituents also influence the basicity of the imine, with the nitro group leading to a more basic nucleophile. Meanwhile, Johnson had extended the Fischer-Fink synthesis by reacting 2-oximinoacetoacetate esters ethyl, benzyl, or tertiary-butylwith 3-alkyl substituted 2,4-pentanediones.

Magnesium Nitride as a Convenient Source of Ammonia: Saidi, Synlett, The methoxy group has a negative effect on the cyclization rate in each case. The mechanism of the Knorr pyrrole synthesis begins with condensation of the amine and ketone to give an imine. Canadian Journal mnorr Chemistry. Levi and Zanetti extended the Knorr synthesis in to the use of acetylacetone 2,4-pentanedione in reaction with ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate.


Site Search any all words. This page was last edited on 17 Februaryat A mechanism that accounts for the influence of different substitution patterns mesodl and explains the influence of a p -nitrophenyl group making a nucleophile more reactive although not as the imine includes the cyclization of a hemiacetal which is followed by different dehydration steps:. Journal of the American Chemical Society. Ethyl and benzyl esters are easily made thereby, and the reaction is noteworthy in that even the highly hindered tert -butyl alcohol gives very high yields in this synthesis.

The two ester positions can knorg more smoothly differentiated by incorporating benzyl or tert -butyl groups via the corresponding acetoacetate esters.

La Gazzetta Chimica Italiana in Italian. The reaction can be conducted under neutral or weakly acidic conditions.

Aromatic Heterocyclic Formation – Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis

Site Search any all words Main Categories. Scheeren, Tetrahedron, 60 Benzyl groups can be removed by catalytic hydrogenolysis over palladium on carbonand tertiary-butyl groups can be removed by treatment with trifluoroacetic acidor boiling aqueous acetic acid.

A more detailed description can be found in the work by Venkataraman Amarnath, and references cited therein J. Microwave mediated facile one-pot synthesis of polyarylpyrroles from butene- and butyne-1,4-diones H.

George Kleinspehn reported that the Fischer—Fink connectivity could be forced to occur exclusively, by the use of diethyl oximinomalonate in the synthesis, with 2,4-pentanedione, or its 3-alkyl substituted yprrole.