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Pushing a road bike at 40 kilometers per hour on a flat road demands power . The TPI polyester/cotton casing of the Challenge Elite isn't as supple as the. welcome. Elite Roads is a full-service road construction company that specialises in civil contracting, road rehabilitation, profiling and the supply and lay of. Elite Roads now offers asphalt, civil contracting and profiling services Customer service is just as important, and being able to meet customer.
Venues[ edit ] Professional athletics almost exclusively takes place in one of three types of venue: Such venues ensure that events take place in a relatively standardised manner, as well as improving the safety of athletes and enjoyment for spectators.
At a more basic level, many forms of athletics demand very little in terms of venue requirements; almost any open space or area of field can provide a suitable venue for basic running, jumping and throwing competitions.
Track and field stadium[ edit ] A typical layout of an outdoor track and field stadium A standard outdoor track is in the shape of a stadium metres in length, and has at least eight lanes 1.
Older track facilities may have nonstandard track lengths, such as yards Historically, tracks were covered by a dirt running surface. Modern All-weather running tracks are covered by a synthetic weather-resistant running surface, which typically consists of rubber either black SBR or colored EPDM granulesbound by polyurethane or latex resins. Older tracks may be cinder -covered.
A standard indoor track is designed similarly to an outdoor track, but is only metres in length and has between four and eight lanes, each with width between 0. However, because of space limitations, indoor tracks may have other nonstandard lengths, such as yard Because of space limitations, meetings held at indoor facilities do not hold many of athletics events typically contested outdoors.
Cross country courses[ edit ] A cross country race taking place at a snowy park in the United States. There is no standardised form of cross country course and each venue is significantly defined by the environment it contains — some may be relatively flat and featureless, while others may be more challenging with natural obstacles, tight turns, and undulating ground.
While a small number of purpose-built courses exist, the vast majority of cross country running courses are created by cordoning a specific area within any open natural land, typically a parkwoodland or greenspace near a settlement.
Severe obstacles such as deep ditches, high barriers and thick undergrowth not normally present; the course should be able to be completed whilst remaining on foot throughout.Elite Roads Meet 2013
In order to maintain the sport's distinction from road running, the usage of unnatural or macadamised surfaces is generally kept to a minimum or avoided entirely. Road courses[ edit ] A typical road running course on the inner-city roads of Toronto The surface of road races is highly important and the IAAF dictate that the courses must be along man-made roads, bicycle paths or footpaths.
Courses set along major roads of cities are typical of road running events, and traffic is usually cordoned off from the area during the competition. While soft ground, such as grass, is generally avoided, races may start and finish on soft ground or within a track and field stadium. Road racing courses come in two primary types: It was initially known as the International Amateur Athletics Federation but changed later its name to reflect that the sport had moved away from amateurism towards professionalism in the late s.
The IAAF has member nations and territories, which are divided into six continental areas or area associations. To simulate an average asphalt road, they use a steel surface with a diamond-plate tread pattern like you might find on metal stairs The tires ranged in width from 22 to 26 millimeters and included standard clinchers, open tubulars, and tubeless versions.
We tested them at 40kph with a load of 50 kilograms, each inflated to psi. To simulate the way we assumed most people will run these various models, we used gram Bontrager XXX latex inner tubes in higher-end clinchers and gram butyl tubes in less expensive ones. Tubeless tires took 25 grams of Bontrager TLR sealant.
All standard clinchers were mounted to Mavic Ksyrium Super Light wheels, while tubeless tires went onto Fulcrum Racing 1 wheels. This involves starting up the machine 12 hours before testing begins to bring the drum and room up to a standard temperature.
Technicians then take three test measurements with three known tires to check for consistency. Finally, each tire runs for 10 minutes on the drum before any measurements are taken, to warm up, settle the tire shape, and work out internal stresses. The calibration procedure means the lab can test only two tires per hour. Though Wheel Energy has found that the difference between two tires of the same model is rarely more than 0.
So we spent one hour testing each model in our lineup. Compound is paramount Rubber compounding is the inexact science of mixing together different organic polymers and, often, inorganic compounds. Tire companies tend to hold their proprietary formulas as closely guarded secrets. One way in which car companies have achieved reductions in average fleet fuel efficiency is by using tires with lower rolling resistance.
Tire companies have begun incorporating more synthetic rubber into their compounds and adding silica to decrease rolling resistance without sacrificing traction.
Specialized All Condition Armadillo Elite Road Clincher Tyre c | Sigma Sports
Silica reduces the amount of internal friction in the rubber, which is key. All rubber loses energy due to internal friction when it is deflected, since the energy required to deform rubber is greater than that required to return it to its original shape. This is why each bounce of a ball is lower than the prior one.
Consider a graph of the extension of a rubber compound versus the force stretching it.
As the rubber is loaded under increasing force, the curve starts out steep then levels off, meaning the rubber initially holds its shape but then gives into increased force. When the load is released, the rubber again tries to hold its shape. It is initially slow to respond and then rapidly returns as the last bits of the load are removed.
This lag in the deflection response is called hysteresis, and it results in a graph that looks like convex lens tilted up to the right. The smaller the loop, the faster the tire. How did compounds play out in our test?
Specialized has several compounds under the Gripton moniker. The actual compound material varies depending on tire model and application.
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The Turbo Cotton is the only tire in the top with a width under 25 millimeters. In the shoulders, it has a compound with higher-hysteresis polymers to maintain grip and provide a dampened, secure road feel. The latex impregnation of the supple, TPI, non-vulcanized cotton casing material ensures that it has very low hysteresis.
Nylon or polyester casings with cured vulcanized rubber melted through the casing have higher hysteresis and, hence, higher energy loss. So the Turbo Cotton was the fastest clincher in our test and also boasts a shoulder tread compound that provides outstanding grip. Speed is nothing without control. This, plus the lack of inner-tube friction, helped it achieve the top spot.
Wolf Vorm Walde, tire research and development director, and Wolfgang Arenz, compounding specialist. Two sheets of unidirectional threads laid across each other at right angles generally counts as one layer. Tire casings are specified in TPI threads per inch per sheet. The higher the number, the thinner the threads, since more of them can be crowded together. It should be, but Continental counts things differently, which makes apples-to-apples comparisons difficult, at least when Contis are thrown into the mix.
The company adds the TPI of each sheet within a layer. This is misleading and renders the TPI number meaningless, because, obviously, the number gets higher by piling more layers atop each other, making the tire stiffer, rather than more supple, as a high-TPI number should indicate. But the great performance of open tubulars in our test shows that a high TPI correctly counted does deliver a faster tire. The millimeter Turbo Cotton tied for first. However, open tubulars from Vittoria, Veloflex, and Challenge ranked down with several vulcanized tires.
We assume those results are a function of inferior tread compounds.
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Even within the same company, compounding can vary greatly between models. Compound is the only explanation. Tubeless road tires do not necessarily have lower rolling resistance We had expected tubeless or tubeless-ready tires to have lower rolling resistances, since inner tubes create friction and should, thus, raise rolling resistance.
Indeed, our top performer was a lightweight tubeless tire. On rough surfaces, where imperviousness to thorn punctures and pinch flats — when used with sealant — makes tubeless tires particularly attractive, they were not always faster. A millimeter Schwalbe ONE clincher with a latex inner tube, for example, had essentially the same rolling resistance as a millimeter Schwalbe ONE tubeless.