Psychological Musings: Comparing Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler
Freud had no tolerance for theories that diverged from his own and eventually Adler parted ways with him. Similarities and Differences. Adler. By Jean Chiriac, President of AROPA. Alfred Adler was one of Freud's first disciples. He even der to distinguish it from Freud's, he called individual psy-. Adler also toyed, early on, with the idea of “masculine protest”, upon observing the obvious differences in the cultural expectations placed on boys and girls, and .
Difference Between Adler and Freud
Adlerian therapists use the technique of uncovering the past, as does Freud, although Adlerian therapists uncover early recollections to more articulately understanding the client Corey, The relationship between the client and the Adlerian therapist "is based on cooperation, mutual trust, respect, confidence, collaboration, and goal alignment" Corey,p.
On the contrary, Freud believed the foundational role of the therapist was to encourage a transference relationship. As the analyst interprets the client's responses, the therapist uncovers unconscious directives and works toward bringing them into the client's consciousness. The therapist must learn to react objectively to any ill effects or hostility toward the therapist because of the transference relationship Corey, Throughout this therapy, the psychoanalyst remains anonymous, in effect, to support the transference relationship.
Difference Between Adler and Freud | Difference Between | Adler vs Freud
Research Support for the Theory According to SaxFreud's theories became popular because of a lack of alternatives during the time he theorized. He further postulates Freud's theories at least provided a framework in which to understand and interpret these problems, even if the framework was not of any therapeutic value" para. Although it has been difficult to discuss the validity of Freud's theories because most of his ideas are neither verifiable nor falsifiable, his theories continue to inspire study.
As brain imaging techniques evolve, outcome research in psychotherapy takes on new understanding Lehtonen, Additionally, neurobiological research recently discovered through the mechanics of neuronal synapses demonstrates how "environmental factors can influence the formation of brain organization during the developmental years". This research gives credence to Freud's and Adler's theory on childhood development and it's lifelong effects.
Adler's theories, like Freud's did not lend themselves to verifiability or falsifiability. Adler did, however, contribute significant influence psychotherapy as a whole, and Corey believes his influence extends into the full range of contemporary therapies, but questions its reliability as a sole therapy.
He did develop a practical perspective that has contributed to psychology's effort to make sense of human nature and its behaviors. As neuroscience continues to give new definition and value to theories that were not measureable in their time, continued research and brain imaging will offer a deeper understanding of psychoanalysis.
Case approach to counseling and psychotherapy 7th ed. Muskingum College Department of Psychology. Freud dictionary of psychoanalysis.
Dimensions in the dialogue between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 19 4 The theories of Freud, Jung and Adler: The work of Sigmund Freud. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 12 3 This aspect of Adlerian psychology holds a high level of synergy with the field of community psychologyespecially given Adler's concern for what he called "the absolute truth and logic of communal life".
Adlerian psychology, Carl Jung 's analytical psychologyGestalt therapy and Karen Horney 's psychodynamic approach are holistic schools of psychology. These discourses eschew a reductive approach to understanding human psychology and psychopathology.
Nevertheless, he intended to illustrate patterns that could denote a characteristic governed under the overall style of life.
Hence American Adlerians such as Harold Mosak have made use of Adler's typology in this provisional sense: They have low energy levels and so become dependent. When overwhelmed, they develop what we typically think of as neurotic symptoms: The Avoiding types are those that hate being defeated.
They may be successful, but have not taken any risks getting there. They are likely to have low social contact in fear of rejection or defeat in any way. The Ruling or Dominant type strive for power and are willing to manipulate situations and people, anything to get their way. People of this type are also prone to anti-social behavior.
The Socially Useful types are those who are very outgoing and very active.
They have a lot of social contact and strive to make changes for the good. These 'types' are typically formed in childhood and are expressions of the Style of Life. The importance of memories[ edit ] Adler placed great emphasis upon the interpretation of early memories in working with patients and school children, writing that, "Among all psychic expressions, some of the most revealing are the individual's memories.
He maintained that memories are never incidental or trivial; rather, they are chosen reminders: There are no 'chance' memories. Out of the incalculable number of impressions that an individual receives, she chooses to remember only those which she considers, however dimly, to have a bearing on her problems.
Adler believed that the firstborn child would be in a favorable position, enjoying the full attention of the eager new parents until the arrival of a second child. This second child would cause the first born to suffer feelings of dethronement, no longer being the center of attention.
Adler believed that in a three-child family, the oldest child would be the most likely to suffer from neuroticism and substance addiction which he reasoned was a compensation for the feelings of excessive responsibility "the weight of the world on one's shoulders" e. As a result, he predicted that this child was the most likely to end up in jail or an asylum.
Youngest children would tend to be overindulged, leading to poor social empathy. Consequently, the middle child, who would experience neither dethronement nor overindulgence, was most likely to develop into a successful individual yet also most likely to be a rebel and to feel squeezed-out. Adler himself was the third some sources credit second in a family of six children.
Adler never produced any scientific support for his interpretations on birth order roles, nor did he feel the need to. Yet the value of the hypothesis was to extend the importance of siblings in marking the psychology of the individual beyond Freud's more limited emphasis on the mother and father. Hence, Adlerians spend time therapeutically mapping the influence that siblings or lack thereof had on the psychology of their clients. The idiographic approach entails an excavation of the phenomenology of one's birth order position for likely influence on the subject's Style of Life.
In sum, the subjective experiences of sibling positionality and inter-relations are psychodynamically important for Adlerian therapists and personality theorists, not the cookbook predictions that may or may not have been objectively true in Adler's time.
For Adler, birth order answered the question, "Why do children, who are raised in the same family, grow up with very different personalities? The position in the family constellation, Adler said, is the reason for these differences in personality and not genetics: Adler's work with addicts was significant since most other prominent proponents of psychoanalysis invested relatively little time and thought into this widespread ill of the modern and post-modern age.
In addition to applying his individual psychology approach of organ inferiority, for example, to the onset and causes of addictive behaviours, he also tried to find a clear relationship of drug cravings to sexual gratification or their substitutions.
Early pharmaco-therapeutic interventions with non-addictive substances, such as neuphyllin were used, since withdrawal symptoms were explained by a form of "water-poisoning" that made the use of diuretics necessary.
Adler and his wife's pragmatic approach, and the seemingly high success rates of their treatment were based on their ideas of social functioning and well-being. Clearly, life style choices and situations were emphasized, for example the need for relaxation or the negative effects of early childhood conflicts were examined, which compared to other authoritarian or religious treatment regimens, were clearly modern approaches. Certainly some of his observations, for example that psychopaths were more likely to be drug addicts are not compatible with current methodologies and theories of substance abuse treatment, but the self-centred attributes of the illness and the clear escapism from social responsibilities by pathological addicts put Adler's treatment modalities clearly into a modern contextual reasoning.
Homosexuality and psychology Adler's ideas regarding non- heterosexual sexuality and various social forms of deviance have long been controversial.Adler
Along with prostitution and criminality, Adler had classified 'homosexuals' as falling among the "failures of life". Inhe began his writings on homosexuality with a page magazine, and sporadically published more thoughts throughout the rest of his life.
The Dutch psychologist Gerard J. There is evidence that Adler may have moved towards abandoning the hypothesis. Towards the end of Adler's life, in the mids, his opinion towards homosexuality began to shift. McDowell, a New York state family social worker recalls undertaking supervision with Adler on a young man who was " living in sin " with an older man in New York City.
Adler asked her, "Is he happy, would you say? Adler then stated, "Well, why don't we leave him alone. These were but ways of obtaining a slight release for a physical need while avoiding a greater obligation. A transient partner of your own sex is a better known road and requires less courage than a permanent contact with an "unknown" sex.
Alfred Adler - Wikipedia
Work or employment, love or marriage, social contact. With regard to psychodynamic psychology, Adlerians emphasize the foundational importance of childhood in developing personality and any tendency towards various forms of psychopathology.
The best way to inoculate against what are now termed "personality disorders" what Adler had called the "neurotic character"or a tendency to various neurotic conditions depression, anxiety, etc. The responsibility of the optimal development of the child is not limited to the mother or father, but rather includes teachers and society more broadly. Adler argued therefore that teachers, nurses, social workers, and so on require training in parent education to complement the work of the family in fostering a democratic character.
When a child does not feel equal and is enacted upon abused through pampering or neglect he or she is likely to develop inferiority or superiority complexes and various concomitant compensation strategies. Spirituality, ecology and community[ edit ] In a late work, Social Interest: