Difference Between Line and Line & Staff Organization (with Comparison Chart) - Key Differences
Staff and line are names given to different types of functions in organizations. A " line function" is For example, human resources, accounting, public relations and the legal department are generally considered to be staff functions. a tiny aspect of the line managers' job, it should relate only to areas in which line managers. The link between brain injury and aphasia has been known for at least 3, years are dedicated exclusively to the functional domains that they serve (e.g., an area that along sensorimotor lines, rooted in rudimentary principles of neuroanatomy. For example, the symptoms associated with damage to Broca's area were. The line-and-staff organization combines the line organization with staff Staff experts in specific areas are incorporated into the formal chain of Three types of authority are present: line, staff, and functional. The head of a staff department has line authority over his or her employees by virtue of authority relationships.
For further diagnostic testing, the physician will refer the patient to a speech-language pathologist, who will complete a comprehensive evaluation. The Western Aphasia Battery WAB classifies individuals based on their scores on the subtests; spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, and naming. Quality of life measurement is also an important assessment tool. Observations of the patient may also be beneficial to determine where to begin treatment.
The current behaviors and interactions of the patient will provide the therapist with more insight about the client and his or her individual needs.
Treatment[ edit ] Currently, there is no standard treatment for expressive aphasia. Most aphasia treatment is individualized based on a patient's condition and needs as assessed by a speech language pathologist.
Patients go through a period of spontaneous recovery following brain injury in which they regain a great deal of language function. Among other exercises, patients practice the repetition of words and phrases.
Mechanisms are also taught in traditional treatment to compensate for lost language function such as drawing and using phrases that are easier to pronounce. Treatment is individualized based on the patient's own priorities, along with the family's input. Although less common, group treatment has been shown to have advantageous outcomes.
Some types of group treatments include family counseling, maintenance groups, support groups and treatment groups.
Language Universals Engage Broca's Area
Melodic intonation therapy[ edit ] Melodic intonation therapy was inspired by the observation that individuals with non-fluent aphasia sometimes can sing words or phrases that they normally cannot speak. The natural musical component of speech was used to engage the patients' ability to produce phrases.
A clinical study revealed that singing and rhythmic speech may be similarly effective in the treatment of non-fluent aphasia and apraxia of speech. MIT therapy on average lasts for 1. At the lowest level of therapy, simple words and phrases such as "water" and "I love you" are broken down into a series of high- and low-pitch syllables. With increased treatment, longer phrases are taught and less support is provided by the therapist.
Patients are taught to say phrases using the natural melodic component of speaking and continuous voicing is emphasized. The patient is also instructed to use the left hand to tap the syllables of the phrase while the phrases are spoken. Tapping is assumed to trigger the rhythmic component of speaking to utilize the right hemisphere. In MIT, individuals with small lesions in the left hemisphere seem to recover by activation of the left hemisphere perilesional cortex.
Meanwhile, individuals with larger left-hemisphere lesions show a recruitment of the use of language-capable regions in the right hemisphere.
Three types of authority are present: Line authority is the right to carry out assignments and exact performance from other individuals. Line authority flows down the chain of command. For example, line authority gives a production supervisor the right to direct an employee to operate a particular machine, and it gives the vice president of finance the right to request a certain report from a department head.
fMRI for mapping language networks in neurosurgical cases
Therefore, line authority gives an individual a certain degree of power relating to the performance of an organizational task. Two important clarifications should be considered, however, when discussing line authority: The head of a staff department has line authority over his or her employees by virtue of authority relationships between the department head and his or her directly-reporting employees.
Staff authority is the right to advise or counsel those with line authority. For example, human resource department employees help other departments by selecting and developing a qualified workforce. A quality control manager aids a production manager by determining the acceptable quality level of products or services at a manufacturing company, initiating quality programs, and carrying out statistical analysis to ensure compliance with quality standards.
Therefore, staff authority gives staff personnel the right to offer advice in an effort to improve line operations. Functional authority is referred to as limited line authority.
- Expressive aphasia
- Language Universals Engage Broca's Area
- Difference Between Line and Line & Staff Organization
It gives a staff person power over a particular function, such as safety or accounting. Usually, functional authority is given to specific staff personnel with expertise in a certain area.
For example, members of an accounting department might have authority to request documents they need to prepare financial reports, or a human resource manager might have authority to ensure that all departments are complying with equal employment opportunity laws.
Functional authority is a special type of authority for staff personnel, which must be designated by top management. Although minimal conflict due to differences in viewpoints is natural, conflict on the part of line and staff personnel can disrupt an entire organization. There are many reasons for conflict.
Poor human relations, overlapping authority and responsibility, and misuse of staff personnel by top management are all primary reasons for feelings of resentment between line and staff personnel. Conceived and designed the experiments: Received Dec 3; Accepted Mar This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Table S1: For example, across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to lbif. But whether language universals are myths or mentally active constraints—linguistic or otherwise—remains controversial.
To address this question, we used fMRI to investigate brain response to four syllable types, arrayed on their linguistic well-formedness e. Results showed that syllable structure monotonically modulated hemodynamic response in Broca's area, and its pattern mirrored participants' behavioral preferences.
Staff and line - Wikipedia
In contrast, ill-formed syllables did not systematically tax sensorimotor regions—while such syllables engaged primary auditory cortex, they tended to deactivate rather than engage articulatory motor regions. The convergence between the cross-linguistic preferences and English participants' hemodynamic and behavioral responses is remarkable given that most of these syllables are unattested in their language.
We conclude that human brains encode broad restrictions on syllable structure. Introduction It is well known that natural languages share certain aspects of their design.
For example, across languages, syllables like blif are preferred e. While these typological facts are well established, their interpretation is controversial.
One contentious issue concerns the status of language universals—whether they are myths mere fossils of historical processes, or synchronic mental constraints that are active in the brains of all humans.
To the extent such constraints are identified, a second question arises concerning their origins—whether they emanate from universal linguistic principles or from nonlinguistic mental forces . And indeed, language structure is not arbitrary. Rather, favored linguistic structures tend to minimize generic computational costs and optimize auditory perception and articulation . While such accommodation of functional pressures could be the hallmark of an adaptive biological system for language, its presence obscures the origin of language universals.
Our experiment addresses this challenge using neuroimaging methods. We reason that if the underrepresentation of certain structures across languages only reflects sensory-motor pressures e.
An alternative explanation attributes linguistic preferences to the language faculty itself.