useful to reflect on research practices, which in a monitoring, evaluation, accountability selecting appropriate methodologies, understanding the difference between quantitative data. 4. Be familiar with different methods for collecting quantitative data and . What are ethical and safe ways to involve children in research?. They help to determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors The method used for data collection often determines the most important They review the research methodology in grant proposals to assure that ethical practices are Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data analysis. In secondary data analysis, the original data was not collected to answer the as the methodology of data collection, accuracy, period of data collection, According to the British Sociological Association's Statement of Ethical Practice ( ).
Describe why adhering to ethical principles is important in research. Describe the purpose and function of the Institutional Review Board.
Secondary Data Analysis: Ethical Issues and Challenges
Ethics are the norms or standards for conduct that distinguish between right and wrong. They help to determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors on the part of the researcher. Why are ethical considerations so important in research? The integrity, reliability and validity of the research findings rely heavily on adherence to ethical principles. The readers and the public want to be assured that researchers followed the appropriate guidelines for issues such as human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, conflicts of interest, safety, health standards and so on.
The handling of these ethical issues greatly impact the integrity of the research project and can affect whether or not the project receives funding. Ethical considerations in research are critical in correlational research, just as they are in other types of research. In fact, correlational research often has an ethical advantage in that it can be used to study relationships between variables without subjecting participants to something harmful.
For example, a researcher could examine whether or not there is relationship between smoking and lung cancer without subjecting participants to smoke by examining existing data or doing surveys. The method used for data collection often determines the most important ethical considerations for a particular correlational research study.
For example, archival data is collected from previously archived information and examined for correlations, and therefore there are no concerns about the treatment of human subjects during the data collection.
The researcher would primarily need to be sure to protect the confidentiality and anonymity of the subjects from whom the data was originally collected. When conducting naturalistic observations and surveys, the primary ethical concerns would be related to the treatment of human subjects.
Regardless of the type of correlational research method, the researcher should take into consideration both general research principles and those that are more specific to the type of research.
In all research, ethical standards prevent against such things as the fabrication or falsifying of data and therefore, promote the pursuit of knowledge and truth which is the primary goal of research. Following is a list of core ethical principles related to the protection of research subjects. Respect for persons — Respect the autonomy, decision-making and dignity of participants.
Beneficence — Minimizing the risks physically, psychologically and socially and maximizing the benefits to research participants. Justice — Participants should be selected from groups of people whom the research may benefit.
Respect for communities — Protect and respect the values and interests of the community as a whole and protect the community from harm. To address these considerations when working with human subjects, most institutions and organizations have developed an Institutional Review Board IRB.
Background Research does not always involve collection of data from the participants.
There is huge amount of data that is being collected through the routine management information system and other surveys or research activities. The existing data can be analyzed to generate new hypothesis or answer critical research questions. This saves lots of time, money and other resources.
Secondary Data Analysis: Ethical Issues and Challenges
Also data from large sample surveys may be of higher quality and representative of the population. However, there are certain ethical issues pertaining to secondary data analysis which should be taken care of before handling such data. Secondary data analysis Secondary analysis refers to the use of existing research data to find answer to a question that was different from the original work 2.
Secondary data can be large scale surveys or data collected as part of personal research.
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Although there is general agreement about sharing the results of large scale surveys, but little agreement exists about the second. While the fundamental ethical issues related to secondary use of research data remain the same, they have become more pressing with the advent of new technologies.
Data sharing, compiling and storage have become much faster and easier. At the same time, there are fresh concerns about data confidentiality and security. Issues in Secondary data analysis Concerns about secondary use of data mostly revolve around potential harm to individual subjects and issue of return for consent. Secondary data vary in terms of the amount of identifying information in it. If the data has no identifying information or is completely devoid of such information or is appropriately coded so that the researcher does not have access to the codes, then it does not require a full review by the ethical board.
The board just needs to confirm that the data is actually anonymous. However, if the data contains identifying information on participants or information that could be linked to identify participants, a complete review of the proposal will then be made by the board.
Ethics in Correlational Research - Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching
If the above said concerns are satisfactorily addressed, the researcher can then request for a waiver of consent. If the data is freely available on the Internet, books or other public forum, permission for further use and analysis is implied.
However, the ownership of the original data must be acknowledged. If the research is part of another research project and the data is not freely available, except to the original research team, explicit, written permission for the use of the data must be obtained from the research team and included in the application for ethical clearance.
However, there are certain other issues pertaining to the data that is procured for secondary analysis.