How did the Etruscans shape Roman history and society? - kinenbicounter.info
Comparing Roman & Greek Temples & Sculpture. Greek & Etruscan Influences on Roman Art. Relationship Between Roman & Early Christian. Etruscan Society and Economy (6); V. Religion in Etruria (10); VI. Moreover, relations between Etruria and Rome or parts of present Greece appear on a. Etruscan civilization of Ancient Italy, its debt to the Greeks and its influence on early to the blossoming of strong trading relations between the peoples of the area Between the late 6th and early 4th centuries BCE, Etruscan power declined.
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Etruscan Civilization - New World Encyclopedia
To the south, the rising power of the Greek city-states of Sicily and southern Italy weakened Etruscan political and military influence, and cities which they had either dominated or founded, such as Romethrew out their overlords and became independent city-states. In the north, Gallic tribes moved into northern Italy and destroyed the Etruscan cities there. However, in their homeland the Etruscan cities remained powerful, and were formidable opponents of the rising power of Rome.
It was only over a long period, in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, that they surrendered their independence to the Romans. The Etruscans spoke a unique language, unrelated to those of their neighbours. Their culture was influenced by Greek traders, and by the Greek colonists of southern Italy.
Etruscan civilization of Ancient Italy, and its influence on early Rome
The Etruscan alphabet is Greek in its origins. They in turn passed on their alphabet to the Romans. Government The Etruscans adopted the city-state as their political unit from the Greeks, earlier than their neighbours in central Italy. The Etruscan homeland was originally divided into twelve city-states, but new cities sprang up as the Etruscans expanded their sphere of influence.
Some seem to have retained their monarchies. The different city-states of Etruria were united by a common religion, and apparently too by a loose political confederacy. This did not stop the different states from going to war with one another from time to time.
Religion The Etruscan system of belief was, like those of the Greeks and Romans, polytheistic, based on the worship of many gods and goddesses: Tin or Tinia, the sky, Uni his wife, and Cel, the earth goddess. Later, Greek deities were taken into the Etruscan system: The Greek heroes taken from Homer also appear extensively in Etruscan art.
These deities were active in the world of man and could be persuaded to influence human affairs. These books were secret, only to be consulted by the priests. Military Like other ancient cultures, warfare was a major aspect of their political life. Like many ancient societies, the Etruscans conducted campaigns during summer months, raiding neighbouring areas, attempting to gain territory, and engaging in — or combating — piracy. An Etruscan Helmut in the British Museum http: As a part of this sacrifice, prisoners were sometimes set to fight one another.
Rome was in a sense the first Italic state, but it began as an Etruscan one. The Etruscan state government was essentially a theocracy. The government was viewed as being a central authority, over all tribal and clan organizations. It retained the power of life and death; in fact, the gorgon, an ancient symbol of that power, appears as a motif in Etruscan decoration.
The adherents to this state power were united by a common religion. Etruscan texts name quite a number of magistrates, without much of a hint as to their function: The people were the mech. The chief ruler of a methlum was perhaps a zilach. A league for unknown reasons, likely religious, had to include 12 city-states.
The word for league was also mech. Once a year the states met at a fanu, or sacred place Latin fanum to discuss military and political affairs, and also to choose a lucumo rulerwho held the office for one year.
What he did is described by the infinitive, lucair to rule. The Etrurian confederacy met at the fanum Voltumnae, the "shrine of Voltumna. It is entirely possible that the Tarquins appealed to Lars Porsena of Clusium sixth century kingeven though he was pro-republican, because he was lucumo of the Etrurian mech for that year.
He would have been obliged to help the Tarquins whether he liked it or not. The kings of Rome at some point may also have been lucumo. The gens name, Lucius, is probably derived from lucair. The Romans attacked and annexed individual cities between and 29 B. This apparent disunity of the Etruscans was probably regarded as internal dissent by the Etruscans themselves.
For example, after the sack of Rome by the Gauls, the Romans debated whether to move the city en masse to Veii, which they could not even have considered if Veii was thought to be a foreign people. Eventually Rome created treaties individually with the Etruscan states, rather than the whole. But by that time the league had fallen into disuse, due to the permanent hegemony of Rome and increasing assimilation of Etruscan civilization to it, which was a natural outcome, as Roman civilization was to a large degree Etruscan.
Religion Rare Etruscan fanu The Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism; that is, all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power and that power was subdivided into deities that acted continually on the world of man and could be dissuaded or persuaded in favor of human affairs.
Three layers are evident in the extensive Etruscan art motifs. One appears to be divinities of an indigenous nature: Catha and Usil, the sun, Tivr, the moon, Selvan, a civil god, Turan, the goddess of love, Laran, the god of war, Leinth, the goddess of death, Maris, Thalna, Turms and the ever-popular Fufluns, whose name is related in some unknown way to the city of Populonia and the populus Romanus.
Perhaps he was the god of the people. Ruling over this panoply of lesser deities were higher ones that seem to reflect the Indo-European system: Tin or Tinia, the sky, Uni his wife Junoand Cel, the earth goddess. In addition the Greek gods were taken into the Etruscan system: The Greek heroes taken from Homer also appear extensively in art motifs.
The Etruscans believed in intimate contact with divinity. They did nothing without proper consultation with the gods and signs from them. These practices, which we would view as superstition, were taken over in total by the Romans. A god was called an ais later eis which in the plural is aisar.
Where they were was a fanu or luth, a sacred place, such as a favi, a grave or temple. There you needed to make a fler plural flerchva "offering. A deceased person travels to the underworld called Aita "Hades" and thus may be referred to as a hinthial literally " one who is underneath". A special magistrate, the cechase, looked after the cecha, or rath, sacred things.
Every man, however, had his religious responsibilities, which were expressed in an alumnathe or slecaches, a sacred society. No public event was conducted without the netsvis, the haruspex, or his female equivalent, the nethsra.
They read the bumps on the liver of a properly sacrificed sheep. We have a model of a liver made of bronze, whose religious significance is still a matter of heated debate, marked into sections that perhaps are meant to explain what the bump in that region should mean.
Divination through haruspices is a tradition originating from the Fertile Crescent. Like the Egyptians, the Etruscans believed in eternal life, but prosperity there was linked to funereal prosperity here. The tombs in many cases were better than many houses, with spacious chambers, wall frescoes and grave furniture. Most Etruscan tombs have been plundered. In the tomb, especially on the sarcophagus, was a representation of the dead person in his or her prime, probably as they wanted to be in the hereafter.
Some of the statuary is the finest and most realistic of any. We have no problem visualizing the appearance of the Etruscans. They wanted us to see them smiling and intimate with their kith and kin around them, as we do. The prevalent view today is that Rome was founded by Etruscans and merged with Italics later. In that case Etruscan cultural objects are not influences but are a heritage. The main criterion for deciding whether an object originated at Rome and traveled by influence to the Etruscans, or descended to the Romans from the Etruscans, is date.
Many if not most of the Etruscan cities were older than Rome. If a given feature was found there first, it cannot have originated at Rome. A second criterion is the opinion of the ancient sources. They tell us outright that certain institutions and customs came from the Etruscans.
The Question of the founding population Due to the fact that Rome was destroyed by the Gauls, losing most of its inscriptional evidence about its early history—according to Livy 59 B. Archaeology confirms a widespread level of destruction by fire dated to that time. Legend; namely, the story of the rape of the Sabine women, says outright that the Italic Sabines were brought into the state.
Demaratus was father of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome and grandfather of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last king. These views must come from the later reduction of Etrurian cities and absorption of the Etruscan populations into the Roman state. If one were to begin recounting all the institutions and persons said to be Etruscan, and comparing cultural objects to ones known to have been of Etruscan origin, an originally Etruscan Rome appears unmistakably.
Etruscans founded Rome, all the kings were Etruscans, and the earliest government was Etruscan. Despite the words of the sources, which indicated Campania and Latium also had been Etruscan, scholars took the view that Rome was on the edge of Etruscan territory. When Etruscan settlements turned up south of the border, it was presumed that the Etruscans spread there after the foundation of Rome. As it stands now, the settlements are known to have preceded Rome.
The Greeks also landed on Etruscan soil, at a round conventional date of about B. Etruscan settlements were inevitably built on a hill, the steeper the better, and surrounded by thick walls. When Romulus and Remus founded Rome, they did so on the Palatine Hill according to Etruscan ritual; that is, they began with a pomoerium or sacred ditch.
Then they proceeded to the walls. Romulus was required to kill Remus when the latter jumped over the wall, breaking the spell.
We do not know what it means however. Populus Romanus Lore descending from the first constitution gives little indication of being anything but Etruscan. The people were divided into magic numbers: Throughout the long history of Rome, a social century of any sort has never been one hundred. It is now known that many words of Etruscan origin have been given Indo-European pseudo-etymologies. This topic seems to generate a great deal of debate. The names of the tribes—Ramnes, Luceres, Tities—are Etruscan, as well as the word curiae.
The king is most likely to have been a lucumo; certainly, the trappings of monarchy are all Etruscan: The latter was a bundle of whipping rods surrounding a double-bladed axe. No confederate or associative form of government could have had the power to whip and execute, administered by the lictors. Chance has thrown an example of the fasces into our possession.
Remains of bronze rods and the axe come from a tomb in Etruscan Vetulonia.
- How did the Etruscans shape Roman history and society?
- The Etruscans, an introduction
- Etruscan Civilization
Now that its appearance is known, the depiction of one was identified on the grave stele of Avele Feluske, who is shown as a warrior wielding the fasces. The most telling Etruscan feature is the very name of the people, populus, which appears as an Etruscan deity, Fufluns. It was divided into gentes, which is an Indo-European word, but that must have been substituted for the Etruscan word at the same time the Indo-European senatus arrived, at the start of the republic, when the Etruscans had become a minority in their own city and lived in the Etruscan quarter.
It was replaced by the Etruscan-Roman town of Ferento nearby, thus preserving relatively undisturbed Etruscan structures, which have been excavated under the auspices of the Swedish Institute. The walls of the houses were of various construction, some built of dressed blocks of volcanic tuff, some of sun-dried bricks framed within wooden poles and beams that formed a kind of half-timbered construction, and some of wattle and daub construction, in which hurdles of brushwood or reed were covered with clay.Etruscans and Romans
House plans range to two or three rooms in a row, with an entrance was normally on the long side; the hearth was set either near the center of the room or into the back wall.