How OCD Affects Social Interaction at School | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA
Items 11 - 16 regarding the influence of OCD on an individual's daily functioning and QOL. disorder and its impact on cognitive processes, sleep, daily routine, leisure and socializing and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and .. systems theory proposes that human development takes place by means. Attending school presents students with opportunities to develop academic For a student who has OCD, symptoms can present barriers to social development. of students with OCD can make a significant difference in how their reactions. Both human development and socialization are lifelong processes that continue Affects of Human Development on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder For example, a correlation between compulsive cleansing and religious.Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) - causes, symptoms & pathology
Our findings also showcased the disruptions to daily life due to OCD. Participants in our study experienced difficulty preparing for sleep as thoughts and rituals had to be performed continuously.
Evidence for sleep disruption due OCD is not consistent across studies, with some demonstrating difficulty sleeping and resulting exhaustion [ 4647 ], and others not [ 48 ].
Psychological Musings: Psychological Disorder: Obsessive Compulsive
The findings that do suggest sleep disturbance also included references to difficulties in daily functioning, overall physical and mental health [ 49 ]. For our participants, a lack of sleep and the associated consequences exacerbated their perceptions of their illness severity, ultimately affecting their ability to function daily [ 50 ]. Leisure activities are found to benefit and assist mental illness in the process of recovery [ 51 ].
However, consistent with other studies, participants found it difficult to engage in activities they enjoy, as many of these activities triggered symptoms of OCD. Moreover, engaging in leisure activities provide opportunities for socialisation. As such, withdrawal from these activities may ultimately also lead to isolation [ 4552 ]. Similar to participants in our study, these participants spoke of their goals and expectations being delayed or thwarted as a consequence of this disorder [ 13 ].
Consequently, individuals with OCD may feel hopeless and powerless, because they cannot live up to particular expectations or potential, which impacts on their self-esteem [ 17 ]. On the other hand, there is not much evidence for the positive impact that OCD may have on school and work as found in this study, despite two qualitative studies making slight mention of it [ 1013 ].
For example, echoing the words of one of our participants, the one study [ 10 ] reported how OCD enabled one of their participants to be thorough and good with detail. Our findings also showcased the ways in which participants managed the disruptions due to OCD in their lives. Participants identified physical, emotional and financial support from significant others as crucial in managing and coping with their OCD.
Similar to our findings, some studies show that most family members of individuals living with OCD accommodate them in most respects—e. However, there also is strong evidence to suggest that family support and involvement may exacerbate dysfunctional behaviours [ 5859 ]. Whereas participants in our study explicitly stated an appreciation of this type of accommodation, and perceived it as a means of social support—studies show that this type of accommodation seems to interfere with a positive response to treatment [ 1660 ].
Furthermore, while participants were mostly positive about the support they received from their significant others, there were concerns about their illness as being burdensome and traumatic for the families [ 6162 ].
Arguably, these concerns may lead to avoidance of sharing and ultimately, to feeling isolated.
This hypothesis is consistent with findings from a recent qualitative study where participants reported feeling disconnected from family and friends [ 17 ]. As such, emotional responses towards family and friends may range from positive and appreciative to fears of being burdensome and withdrawal—highlighting that it is an important avenue for further research. Indeed, some literature suggests that involving family in treatment e.
Furthermore, other studies have also demonstrated that familial responses to OCD vary, and in some instances may become a source of conflict that can contribute to even poorer relationship functioning, marital discord, and divorce [ 63 — 65 ]. Participants in the current study experienced OCD as disturbing, destructive, and debilitating, causing strong emotional reactions such as anxiety, irritation, anger, sadness, discomfort, and disgust.
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder | Kelly Decker - kinenbicounter.info
This ties in with diagnostic nomenclatures such as the DSM [ 3 ] and the ICD [ 66 ], which describes OCD as a condition characterised by intrusive thoughts and compulsions associated with significant distress. Feelings of anger, dissatisfaction, and hopelessness are also typical of patients with mental health problems such as OCD [ 131767 ].
Our participants reported various ways of coping and adjusting to, and being flexible about the demands of their condition and its sequelae. Participants reported shifting from first attempting to solve OCD itself problem-focused coping to attempting to solve the emotions associated with their OCD emotion-focused coping [ 68 ]. As participants shift from problem-focused coping to emotion-focused coping, they change their thoughts and the way they view their disorder and therefore move towards feelings of acceptance, i.
ACT is an empirically-based psychological intervention that uses acceptance strategies mixed with commitment and behavior-change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. As noted previously, whether participants accepted the diagnosis and its chronic nature or not, its impact on their daily lives is unmistakeable, and influences relationships significantly.
It may be argued that if patients with OCD can learn to stop avoiding and denying their OC symptoms and accept the existence and the need for treatment thereof, they may be able to move forward in their lives. With this understanding, individuals may begin to accept their diagnosis and its sequelae, and commit to making the necessary changes in their behavior, regardless of what is going on in their lives. Limitations and recommendations This study has a few limitations. First, the sample size is relatively small but nevertheless comparable to other qualitative work.
Second, interviews were once-off, thus providing little opportunity for rapport building between the interviewer and the interviewee. Follow-up interviews may have provided an opportunity for participants to feel sufficiently more comfortable to provide more in-depth information. Our findings were consistent with those from quantitative studies, but provides added depth that may assist in the care of these patients.
For example, in the current study the findings provide instances of consistent and contrasting accounts of the experience of OCD—highlighting the heterogeneity of the disorder, and the importance of exploring individual perspectives.
A discussion of management and coping with OCD emphasized the importance of acceptance. This ties in with recent work on the potential value of ACT, either as monotherapy or as an adjunct to conventional techniques such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy CBT.
Many caveats in our knowledge remain.
For example, whether the South African experiences of living with OCD are significantly different from other contexts, is not yet known. Also, how local challenges—e. Conceptualisation of idea, data collection and analysis, preparation of full first draft of manuscript.
These data were collected as part of Ms.
Conceptualisation of research question, assisting with data analysis, contributing to writing of manuscript. Conceptualisation of research question, assisting with recruitment and data collection, assisting with data analysis, contributing to writing of manuscript.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Acknowledgements We are grateful for the contributions and time of the individuals with OCD who agreed to participate and share their stories. We would like to acknowledge those who assisted with data collection, transcription and translation. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Consent for publication All participants provided written informed consent for publication.
All participants provided written informed consent. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at, are those of the authors and are not necessarily to be attributed to the NRF.
Living with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a South African narrative
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Interestingly, however, symptoms of the disorder often assume characteristics of consequence to the individual's culture. For example, a correlation between compulsive cleansing and religious rituals has been reported among Egyptian Muslims Okasha et al, The results of current cross-cultural research suggest obsessive-compulsive disorder has a more significant association in neurobiology than in cultural differences Pallanti, Conclusion Socialization, human development, and enculturation determine the perception, development, treatment, and the full range of emotions associated with psychological disorders.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrates significant prevalence cross-culturally and is neither accepted nor construed as normal from any cultural perspective.
Although human development affects individuals without full regard to the social construct within which it forms, socialization determines characteristics of cultural consequence and defines acceptable and expected behaviors, and provides a definition to normal and abnormal behavior.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry ; Obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: The epidemiology of obsessive— compulsive disorder in five US communities.
Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, Focus on brain disorders: Retrieved June 23,from http: The global burden of disease: Phenomenology of obsessive- compulsive disorder: Comprehensive Psychiatry 35, — Pallanti, S. Transcultural observations of obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2 ,