Imperialism, Revolution, and Industrialization in 19th-Century Europe | Owlcation
Industrial Revolution and Imperialism. Modern World Global Impact of Industrialization (cont.) ▷ Global . claim land in Africa by notifying. It is not difficult to define industrialization; it is simply the use of machines to . industrial and export economies is the relationship between England, on the one hand . with greater efficiency; imperial nations could now micromanage colonies. The industrialization of Europe was the result of the Industrial Revolution, This impacted relations between European nations, particularly in Scholars are not agreed on the motives behind European imperialism in Africa.
And if you have more land, which is for the most part used for agriculture, well, you're going to have more taxes and wealth. And if you have more people, they will have output so you can tax that, but they can also be used, they could be taxed, so to speak, for war. They could produce more soldiers and so the more revenue and soldiers you have, well, that could help you just accrue more and more power.
And so this is the classic loop that you see why most empires tried to expand and sometimes when they stopped expanding, you see that they started to decline. But now in this video, from the early 18th century to the beginning of the 20th century, we have new things at play.
We have the technological innovation from the Industrial Revolution, things like electricity and steam power. You see the notion of capitalism come into its prime, this focus on where do you maximize your returns for a given amount of capital that you have? And land is a form of capital, but as we will see or as we saw in some of those pictures, as technology becomes more and more valuable, things other than land become very important forms of capital, like factories, like railroads, like ships.
And related to these two ideas, you have industrialization, which is the use of technology to become more productive, to increase output. And they all feed off of each other. A capitalist says, how do I get better return on my capital? Well, I should industrialize. I should make my factories more efficient. Well, to make my factories more efficient, I have to also invest in technology to get that industrialization.
The more I industrialize, the better my profits, and so the more I am going to be able to invest in this cycle. As I'm trying to industrialize, I have all sorts of problems that I'm trying to solve, so it's going to drive the need to improve my technology.
And those who develop the technology, well, they're going to have more capital to invest. So, once again, it's creating this cycle which is going to feed the fuel of imperialism.
In the Industrial Revolution, the owners of capital started to have more and more power. If you think about a factory So that's my factory right over there. It takes raw materials If you think about it, it's a clothing factory. It might take raw cotton or turn it into thread or it might take that cotton thread and then turn it into some type of fabric and then you have finished goods, maybe this is clothing.
So even before the Industrial Revolution, people would take raw materials, do something to it, and then you would have finished goods. Political and institutional changes, however, are not the only revolutions that took place across Europe. Industrialization, to a large degree, brought economic change to Europe on a scale never before seen.
Just as the political revolutions of Europe varied from country to country, so too did the forces of industrialization that favored particular social, economic, and political environments over others. But what factors contributed to its impact? This growth in population was important since it assisted in the development of cities and provided a consumer market to meet the large-scale production capabilities of industry. Revolutions in transportation and technology, such as the railroad and steamboat, further aided the development of industrialization since they provided a means for consumer goods to be shipped in mass quantities quickly and cost-effectively, across long distances.
Similar to the political revolutions taking place across Europe, industrialization varied greatly across the European continent.
In Great Britain, for instance, the effects of industrialization were, perhaps, most recognizable since the British Empire fostered an atmosphere conducive to industry and its effects. With an empire that stretched the globe, Britain possessed a large and diverse population, as well as a vast consumer market that helped stimulate the production of mass quantities of goods.
According to historian, Anna Clark, however, the Industrial Revolution also created as many problems as it solved in Great Britain.
This is particularly true if the social impact of the revolution is taken into account. While the Industrial Revolution provided many individuals with jobs and an abundance of goods, Clark asserts that it also served to create social strife and gender inequality, and greatly expanded the divide between social classes Clark, Problems such as these greatly helped fuel the social and political revolutions taking place across Britain, and eventually Europe, at large.
Consequently, the social strife created by industry resulted in many of the problems seen in the last half of the nineteenth-century, particularly within Russia and the eventual Soviet Union. Industrialization within France and Austria also provided similar effects, although not nearly as pronounced as the British example.
According to Breunig, industrialization greatly aided in the modernization efforts within France. In regard to Austria, Norman Rich explains: Like the other continental countries, however, Austria faced material shortages and a smaller-scale consumer market that paled in comparison to Great Britain. Eastern Europe and Russia, in particular, did not experience the full effects of industrialization like Great Britain, France, and Austria until later into the nineteenth-century.
With its isolated position in Europe, Russia once again possessed a natural barrier to many of the changes sweeping across the continent. Many of the institutions and policies of Russian governance continued to reflect the absolutist ideals espoused by the Old Regime, even into the twentieth-century. Serfdom, which amounted to basic elements of slavery, continued unabated until the s in Russia. As a result of this dependence on agriculture and the labor of serfs, Russia did not begin its modernization and industrialization policies until the late nineteenth-century well after the industrial revolutions of Western Europe.
Fearful of encroachment and destruction by the hands of the Western powers, Russia sought to catch up to the industrialized and technologically advanced West only because its national interests were at stake.
With the unification and militarization of Germany during the s and s, such fears do not appear erroneous, especially when the aggressiveness of German military policies are taken into account. The failure of Russia to industrialize later, rather than sooner, created many problems for the Russian Empire as it attempted to transition too quickly from an agricultural-based society to industry. By diverting their attention away from agriculture too rapidly, the Russian Empire experienced social strife and economic problems that eventually led to its downfall, following World War I.
As seen, industrialization varied greatly between the powers of Europe since it required multiple factors for its success.
Industrialization and imperialism
Nevertheless, its effects greatly impacted the European continent in a profound manner through the tremendous innovations it inspired in both technology and production. As a result, Europe advanced faster and more quickly than at any other time period in its history. More importantly, however, industrialization helped cultivate and contribute to the rising social and political strife originally inspired by the French Revolution.
Through its creation of imbalances in social class, gender, and wealth, industrialization helped set the stage for many of the social problems that existed in the latter part of the nineteenth-century that continued well into the twentieth-century as well.
Source Imperialism Similar to the political, social, and industrial revolutions, discrepancies in the policies of imperialism varied across Europe as well.Industrialization and imperialism - World History - Khan Academy
Ostensibly, imperialism expanded and grew as a result of the European desire to spread Christianity to the so-called heathen societies of the world, and as a means to bring civilization to the undeveloped tribes and clans of the globe.
As Mark Cocker asserts: More often than not, however, imperial sentiments derived from a deeply racist view of indigenous people whom the Europeans viewed as inferior to their culture and way of life.
Industrialization and imperialism (video) | Khan Academy
And when your work was bad, you had hardly any time to eat it at all? Do you consider doffing a laborious employment, -- Yes. Explain what it is you had to do- -- When the frames are full, they have to stop the frames, and take the flyers off, and take the full bobbins off, and carry them to the roller; and then put empty ones on, and set the frames on again. Does that keep you constantly on your feet? Your labor is very excessive? Suppose you flagged a little, or were too late, what would they do, -- Strap us.
Are they in the habit of strapping those who are last in doffing? Girls as well as boys? Have you ever been strapped? Could you eat your food well in that factory? Did you live far from the mill? Had you a clock. Supposing you had not been in time enough in the morning at the mills, what would have been the consequence? What do you mean by that?
Were you generally there in time? What is the temperature of silk-mills? Is any artificial heat required? Why, then, are those employed in them said to be in such a wretched condition? In the second place the privy is in the factory, which frequently emits an unwholesome smell; and it would be worthwhile to notice in the future erection of mills, that there be betwixt the privy door and the factory wall a kind of a lobby of cage-work.
What are the effects of the present system of labor? The degradation of the workpeople baffles all description: Every machine is valuable in proportion to the quantity of work which it will turn off in a given time.
It is impossible that the machinery could produce as much work in ten hours as in twelve. If the tending of the machines were a laborious occupation, the difference in the quantity of work might not always be in exact proportion to the difference of working time; but in my mill, and silk-mills in general, the work requires the least imaginable labor; therefore it is perfectly impossible that could produce as much work in ten hours as in twelve.
The produce would vary in about the same ratio as the working time. What may be said about the sum invested in your mill and machinery? Then to what extent do you consider your property would be prejudiced by a bill limiting the working hours to ten? How would the reduction in the hours of labor affect the cost of your manufactures?
Now the mere interest of the investment in buildings and machinery, and the expense of keeping the same in repair, forms a large item In the cost of manufacturing. Do you mean to say, that to produce the same quantity of work which your present mill and machinery is capable of, it requires an additional outlay of upwards of 3, pounds? Testimony before the Ashley Committee on the Conditions in Mines. We have about bound people contract laborersand in addition our bank people foremenmen and boys about In the pits men and boys; of these, men.
Of the children in the pits we have none under eight, and only three so young. We are constantly beset by parents coming making application to take children under the age, and they are very anxious and very dissatisfied if we do not take the children; and there have been cases in times of brisk trade, when the parents have threatened to leave the cottlery, and go elsewhere If we did not comply.
At every successive binding, which takes place yearly, constant attempts are made to get the boys engaged to work to which they are not competent from their years. In point of fact, we would rather not have boys until nine years of age complete. If younger than that, they are apt to fail asleep and get hurt; some get killed.
It is no interest to the company to take any boys under nine. He is down from 6 to 8. He likes it pretty well, for he'd rather be in the pit than to go to school. There is not much difference in his health since he went into the pit. He was at school before, and can read pretty well, but can't write.
He is used pretty well; I never hear him complain. I've another son in the pit, 17 years old. He went into the pit at eight years old. It's not hurt his health nor his appetite, for he's a good size. It would hurt us of children were prevented from working till 11 or 12 years old, because we've not jobs enough to live now as it is. I hardly know how to reprobate the practice sufficiently girls working in pits; nothing can be worse. I have no doubt that debauchery is carried on, for which there is every opportunity; for the girls go constantly, when hurrying, to the men, who work often alone in the bank-faces apart from every one.
I think it scarcely possible for girls to remain modest who are in pits, regularly mixing with such company and hearing and such language as they do - it is next to impossible. I dare venture to say that many of the wives who come from pits know nothing of sewing or any household duty, such as women ought to know - they lose all disposition to learn such things; they are rendered unfit for learning them also by being overworked and not being trained to the habit of it.
I have worked in pits for above 10 years, where girls were constantly employed, and I can safely say it is an abominable system; indecent language is quite common. I think, if girls were trained properly, as girls ought to be, that there would be no more difficulty, in finding suitable employment for them than in other places.