Relationship between policy and politics

relationship between policy and politics

The relationship between politics and government are as follow: Government refers to the group of people that run the country while politics refers to the. icular features in the political development of. Finland. I discuss the relationship between politics and administration in respect to policy- making: especially the. Politics and policy are different aspects of government. The Difference Between Party Politics and Policy The relationship is complex.

Eight Steps of Policy Making. See how some parts of policy making are about debate and rallying support, and others are about designing specific rules. Loosely speaking, politics is the human aspects and policy describes the rule-sets.

Politics and policy are connected every step of the way, and that adds complexity, but each step is either more ideological and political or more rational and mechanic-based. The Problem of Party Politics and Policy: This involves compromise, putting provisions on the chopping block, touting ideology over details, and likely doing some major legislative and political gymnastics with the help of policy analysts on one side and political allies on the other.

Put the disconnect between political ideologies together with the disconnect between ideology and policy in general, and we have a recipe for trouble, not just in politics, but in the rising political debate among citizens.

Difference Between Policy and Politics | Difference Between | Policy vs Politics

Crash Course Government and Politics Social policy is a good lens through which to understand the aspects of policy and politics. A principle is like a personal moral policy. Both principles and policies are rule-sets of sorts. Principles are more ethereal; policies are generally more specific. Learn about the nature and importance of principles. While reading this article, think about the fact that often when politics is debated on TV or social media what is being debated is ideology and party politics and not policy.

Difference Between Policy and Politics

We rarely talk about a specific rule and its affects. More often we talk about an overarching subject. We rarely talk about the mechanics of the individual mandate and its impact on the budget. Watch out for getting caught up in an ideological argument; it is hard to combat ideology with facts and figures.

Linking Policy and Politics Lawrence M. Mead New York University. It may also be defined as the analysis of new policy, which is prescriptive; involved with formulating policies and proposals. The politician works within the sphere of psychology; the analyst works within the sphere of facts. Politicians and policy analysts work together to create the best policies that they can muster, given the political system. The more specific the policy and rules, the more specifically things can be analyzed.

But that power attracts rivals. One of the traditional rivalries in many libraries is between the library director and the library committee, and this rivalry is often expressed as influence over collection management policy. The rivalry may be friendly but no less real for that. A powerful library committee will insist that collection management decisions are its responsibility, not the library director's responsibility and certainly not the collection manager's responsibility.

The response of the library director or the collections manager may be to retain power through the complexity of many purchasing decisions, as it is often difficult for a committee with a full agenda to absorb the detail necessary to make effective decisions.

It is not unknown for a library director to hide a controversial purchase within a general fund where the purchase will not be obvious. It is not unknown for a library committee to take so much interest in the detail of purchasing policy that it loses sight of the overall strategy which should be its main concern. Hopefully the library director will work with the committee rather than against it, but control over collections policy is an issue which can bring out the worst as well as best in those involved.

Much the same can be said about another expression of power in collection management, and that is the placing of large orders for books, journals or datasets. Libraries have budgets which look attractive to booksellers, subscription agents and other sellers of information.

Major purchasing decisions may be made through a process rather like an old-fashioned dance, a courtship between supplier and librarian.

relationship between policy and politics

The librarian responsible for purchasing indicates that s he has to decide where a large order is to be placed: The sales-people become suitors, inviting the purchaser to dance with them. The purchaser dances with various suitors, discovering more about each one, until the choice of a partner is made. There is nothing improper about this process, and indeed it is essential that the librarian knows well the people and organizations with which s he is to do business, but there is an element of power-play in the process.

The sense of power is even stronger in the case of a purchase by a consortium, where a very large sum of money may be available for a purchase and where a very large number of libraries may be involved.

Suppliers of information are often also in a powerful position, as librarians world-wide have been discovering when negotiating with the multi-national companies that control academic journal publication. The collections manager may be in a weak negotiating position when such a commercial organisation controls journal titles which are essential to teaching and research.

And such companies, having shareholders to answer to, do not hesitate to use their powerful position to make as much profit as they can.

Who holds the power? More sinister is the danger that a handful of commercial companies will control access to information throughout the world. Certainly some companies have seen the opportunity for even higher profits in the acquisition of companies at other points in the information chain. There are clear dangers for users if one company controls both a digital network and the content available through that network. Would the traditional safeguards against monopolies protect the consumer against unfair price rises imposed by such a company?

The rush of commercial interests to enter developments like digital television indicates that they see the potential for profit, but who will look after the interests of the seeker of information? The power of such commercial interests over content derives from intellectual property rights.

For this reason commercial companies have been making strenuous efforts to influence national and international copyright legislation. Protecting the interests of users of information in such debates have been librarians, consumer organizations, and organizations representing the disadvantaged in society. Information brings money and power, and a struggle between commercial and public good interests is taking place for the control of information. In the academic world that struggle is being expressed through moves to change the relationship between authors and publishers.

relationship between policy and politics

Responses by librarians to price rises imposed by publishers on subscriptions to academic journals have been varied and - it has to be said - largely ineffective. The key to price is power, and at present publishers have the power of copyright to enable them to charge high prices for journals.

It will only be as the agencies which fund academic research use their power to insist upon publication in the public domain that the power of commercial interests will be controlled. Control of unfair commercial exploitation is also linked to control of monopolies, and the monopoly publishers presently hold in the copyright of a particular work has enabled them to charge high prices.

Using the flexibility of electronic publication to enable the publication of research in more than one format - for example in an early version on a preprint server and a later version in a commercial journal - will enable the academic community to break the monopolistic power that copyright gives to commercial interests.

The academic community has always accepted reasonable profit levels, but the profit levels enjoyed by some publishers on the back of academic research have been scandalous. In this area the word "policy" also takes on its common meaning of "public policy". Power over the cost of information and access to information are matters of public policy. It would be unrealistic to expect all information to be in the public domain.

Commercial companies do add value to information. But the relationship between the value added and the price charged to the user of information is a matter of public policy. The second half of the twentieth century was a period in which market forces dominated the price of information and access to information. Information flowed to those who could afford to pay.

Relationship between religion and politics

An important question for policy-makers in the twenty-first century will be the extent to which market forces in information are to be restrained in the interests of the public good. The social need to develop learning opportunities for the disadvantaged in society and for people of all age-groups can only be met if access to information is easy and affordable. This is an issue which will have to be addressed by politicians in many countries in the world but primarily in those countries which are the major producers of published information.

Expressed plainly, this is an issue of power: This aspect of public policy will have a profound effect upon collection management. In academic libraries the major problem facing collection managers is the cost of buying books and journals.

At times this is a problem of under-funding of libraries, but many libraries have been successful in increasing their income only to find that they are purchasing fewer rather than more books and journals. Securing higher funding for libraries has sometimes been like pouring petrol on the fire of price rises. Only shareholders in publishing companies have benefited. What really matters to collection managers is not how much money is available but what you can buy for whatever money is available.

Collection managers are therefore in a similar position to pensioners in needing low inflation to make best use of their income! Low inflation in academic journal prices in particular will have a profound effect upon collection development, not only in stopping the endless round of cancellations but also in enabling more books and other information materials to be purchased.

Such low inflation in the cost of information will only come about as power in the information world is shared more fairly between commercial and public interests. People and collection management. Policy is determined by people. Everywhere in the information world there are people whose collective decisions determine how effective libraries are in meeting the needs of seekers of information. The motives of individuals, their strengths and weaknesses, their prejudices and their hopes all influence the quality of library collections.

It might be argued that the days are past when one individual could shape a library as some great women and men have done in the past, but even in an era of collective management individual contributions make a difference. The organisational structures within which an individual works can prevent good work from bearing fruit or they can enable good work to flourish, but those structures themselves are designed and operated by people.

Policy is Different Than Politics - Fact or Myth?

A collections manager may be the library director or may be somebody responsible to the library director. In the former case, the effectiveness of the library director as collections manager will depend not only on personal qualities but on the priority given to collection development within a wide range of duties.

One policy decision in that situation will be that of the way the individual's time is allocated. In most large libraries, however, the library director is unlikely to play much of an active part in collection management. As a library director I was often contacted by booksellers with a view to persuading me to buy this or that book, and I had to explain that apart from very expensive purchases I did not become involved in purchasing decisions.

In a large organization collections management should be a job in its own right, as it involves a level of attention to detail which a library director is unable to give.

relationship between policy and politics

Indeed even somebody whose only role is as collections manager will need other eyes and ears to watch and listen for developments both within and without the institution.

This is a vital role for subject librarians. A good collections manager should be listening to as many people as possible before formulating recommendations to go to the library director and library committee. These recommendations should be linked to the organisation's and the library's strategic plans. Collections management is a policy. It has implications for other policy areas.

The person responsible for collections management, therefore, has to have be sensitive to strategic issues. A collections manager also has to have her or his feet firmly on the ground!

relationship between policy and politics

This is a very practical role, having to do with what is possible as well as what is desirable from a strategic perspective.

It is my painful experience that unrealistic policies are soon shot down in flames by members of library committees who may not be librarians but who can sense when a librarian's ambitions are bigger than the budget! Equally a librarian can be too cautious. Proposing a visionary but realistic collections policy puts to the test a librarian's personal as well as professional qualities. As a young librarian I often felt that I was a "jack-of-all-trades", and probably "master-of none".

Librarians are expected to have enough knowledge of all academic disciplines to understand the needs of users, to be sufficiently competent at keeping accounts to balance a budget, to be good enough managers to ensure that library services run smoothly, and above all to be helpful and polite to users.

relationship between policy and politics

Of course librarians are also human, and such a combination of virtues is rare. The major problem many librarians face today in performing their duties is pressure of work, and collection managers are no exception. There are always trade representatives knocking on the door or telephoning, interrupting the thought-processes which lead to the formation of policy. A librarian may go to a committee meeting wondering, "Have I got the figures right? The people who take the decisions about collection management are not the only people who are involved.

The formation of policy in any area carries the connotation of authority, of people with authority to devise and implement policy in a certain area. There are also people at the receiving end, those who feel the effect - for good or ill - of the policymakers' decisions. In the world of libraries those on the receiving end of policy are the users of libraries. How do they interact with the policy formed by the policymakers? A healthy organisation will have procedures in place to consult users in advance of decisions and to secure feedback on the effect of decisions.

Some collection management decisions are long-term and will only be judged by later generations. What great wisdom some of our forebears showed in buying books and journals which must have stretched their budgets at the time but which are of incalculable value now! Are we failing the next generation of users by placing so much emphasis upon access rather than holdings? Or are we saving future users' time in refusing to collect items which are not likely to have any potential use?