Treaty of Tordesillas - Wikipedia
The Treaty of Tordesillas signed at Tordesillas on June 7, , and authenticated at Setúbal, On his way back to Spain he first reached Lisbon, in Portugal. However, the latter treaty was immediately repudiated by the Catholic Monarch. . Catholic Church and the Age of Discovery · History of Portugal ( –). Catholic Christianity is the largest religion in Spain, but practical secularization is strong. Only 3% of Spaniards consider religion as one of their three most important values, even lower than the 5% European average. The Spanish Constitution of abolished Catholicism as the official state Revivalist efforts by the Catholic Church and other creeds have not had any. On June 7, , the governments of Spain and Portugal agreed to the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided their spheres of influence in the.
The Counter-Reformation — was especially strong in Spain and the Inquisition was not definitively abolished untilthus keeping Islam, Judaism, Protestantism and parts of Enlightenment at bay for most of its history.
Antiquity and late Antiquity[ edit ] See also: According to a medieval legendthe apostle James was the first to spread Christianity in the Roman Iberian Peninsula. There is no factual evidence of this but he later became the patron saint of Spaniards and Portuguese, originating the Way of St James.
Other later myths include the Seven Apostolic Men.
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There is some archaeological evidence of Christianity slowly penetrating the Peninsula from Rome and Roman Mauretania via major cities and ports, especially Tarragonasince the early 2nd century.
The Paleo-Christian Necropolis of Tarragonawith 2, discovered tombs, dates back to the second half of the 3rd century. Eventually, Emperor Constantine — converted the entire Roman Empire and Christianity was thus established as the only official religion.
This Christianity was already an early form of Catholicism. The 7th-century Visigothic church of San Pedro de la Nave As Rome declined, Germanic tribes invaded most of the lands of the former empire. In the years following the Visigoths —- who had converted to Arian Christianity around —- occupied what is now Spain and Portugal.
The Visigothic Kingdom established its capital in Toledo ; it reached its high point during the reign of Leovigild The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Bernini In the s, Philip's plans to consolidate control of the Netherlands led to unrest, which gradually led to the Calvinist leadership of the revolt and the Eighty Years' War.
Spain retained control of the southern regions modern-day Belgium as the Protestants there fled north to The Netherlands. Counter Reformation[ edit ] The Counter Reformation was the effort of the Catholic Church to reform itself, rebuild its base of support, and fight off the Protestant threat. It was highly successful in Spain. His writings on educational theory and practice involved a flexible strategy that focused on moral formation rather than the coercive regulation of behavior.
He strongly supported the new Jesuit order. He helped rally support for the decrees of the Council of Trentparticularly those regarding the establishment of diocesan seminaries. It was the means by which the intensely devout could move beyond the routine of good works and standard prayers to have a direct encounter with God — an encounter often compared to the ecstasy of sexual satisfaction. Saint Teresa of Avila was the outstanding representative.
Teresa's promoters said Spain faced new challenges, especially the threat of Protestantism, and the declining society at home and needed a modern patron saint who understood these problems and could lead the Spanish nation back. Santiago's supporters "santiaguistas" fought back viciously and won the day, but Teresa of Avila remained far more popular at the local level. The Dominicans had an advantage in the competition for office, as they influential high court positions such as royal confessor.
There was an unexpected result in that bishops who were members of religious orders were more inclined to protest the growing royal taxation of the Church. The royal policy was to have complete control over the personnel of the church, such as the selection of bishops, abbeys, and other major officeholders. After Spain spent 2. The solution was to expel all Jesuits from Spain and its overseas empire, which was done expeditiously in Charles conducted his government through Count Arandaa reader of Voltaireand other liberals.
At a council meeting of January 29,the expulsion of the Society of Jesus was settled. Secret orders were sent to the magistrates of every town where a Jesuit resided. The plan worked smoothly and all the Jesuits were marched like convicts to the coast, where they were deported to the Papal States.
By the Jesuits had been dispossessed throughout the Spanish dominions. The impact on the Spanish New World was particularly great, as the far-flung settlements were often dominated by missions. Almost overnight in the mission towns of Sonora and Arizona, the "black robes" as the Jesuits were known disappeared and the "gray robes" Franciscans replaced them.
Spiritists spiritualists emerged and forged a political identity. Bishops said their belief in direct communications with the dead was heresy.
The spiritists had a middle class profile, were concerned with Spain's moral regeneration, and embraced rationalism, and a demand for Catholic reform. These views brought them in contact with other dissident groups and they all entered into the political arena when the Restoration-era Church refused to tolerate their "heresies". Debates over the secularization of cemeteries in particular granted spiritists a degree of public legitimacy and brought them into the circle of freethinkers who embraced republicanism.
During riots in Catalunya 20 clergymen were killed by members of the liberal movement in retaliation for the Church's siding with absolutist supporters of Ferdinand VII.
The Inquisition was finally abolished in the s, but even after that religious freedom was denied in practice, if not in theory. In following the First Carlist Warthe new regime abolished the major convents and monasteries. The experience of disentail had, however, replaced the Church's assumption of privilege with a sense of uncertainty.
Though it would be many years before it ceased to look to the state for protection and support - not least in denying freedom of worship to Spaniards until - the Spanish Church now accepted the secular jurisdiction of the state and some idea of national sovereignty. They formed a numerous devotional and charitable organizations and fought against prostitution; they tried to freeze anti-clerical politicians out of high society.
Anti-clerical activists, union members, and intellectuals were increasingly annoyed by the reinvigoration of the church at the upper levels of society. In May,a wave of attacks hit Church properties in Madrid, Andalucia, and the Levant, as dozens of religious buildings, including churches, friaries, convents, and schools, lay in ruins. The government expropriated all Church properties, such as episcopal residences, parish houses, seminaries and monasteries. The Church had to pay rent and taxes in order to continuously use these properties.
Religious vestments, chalices, statues, paintings, and similar objects necessary for worship were expropriated as well. Its main base was the peasantry in heavily rural Spain. It had international support from Catholics, especially members of the Irish diasporawhich was politically powerful in the United States. It emphasized women's role as mothers and caregivers and register women by presenting the vote as a means to fulfill women's obligation to protect family and religious values.
Civil war [ edit ] Further information: Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War and Red Terror Spain Political ideologies were intensely polarized, as both right and left saw vast evil conspiracies on the other side that had to be stopped.
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The central issue was the role of the Catholic Church, which the left saw as the major enemy of modernity and the Spanish people, and the right saw as the invaluable protector of Spanish values. The end came in a devastating civil war, —39, which was won by the conservative, pro-Church, Army-backed "Nationalist" forces supported by Nazi Germany and Italy. The Nationalists, led by General Francisco Francodefeated the Republican "Loyalist" coalition of liberals, socialists, anarchists, and communists, which was backed by the Soviet Union.
Thousands of churches were destroyed, and Catholic priests, nuns and conspicuous laymen came under violent attack by the Republican side.
The killers were typically anarchists who acted because the Church was their great enemy and it supported the rebellion.
History of the Catholic Church in Spain
The loyalty of the Roman Catholic Church to the Francoist state lent legitimacy to the dictatorship, which in turn restored and enhanced the church's traditional privileges.
In contrast to the anticlericalism of the Popular Front, the Francoist regime established policies that were highly favorable to the Catholic Church, which was restored to its previous status as the official religion of Spain. In addition to receiving government subsidies, the church regained its dominant position in the education system, and laws conformed to Catholic dogma. The government not only paid priests' salaries and subsidized the church, but it also assisted in the reconstruction of church buildings damaged by the war.
Laws were passed abolishing divorce and banning the sale of contraceptives. Catholic religious instruction was mandatory, even in public schools. In the s and s, the church and Catalonia went through a grassroots revival, and gained wide popular support. By the s, anti—clericalism had largely disappeared in the region and the Catholic Church became a central element in revival of Catalan nationalism and provided a base for the opposition to Francoism. During the final years of the dictatorship, the church withdrew its support from the regime and became one of its harshest critics.
The Joint Assembly of Bishops and Priests held in marked a significant phase in the distancing of the church from the Spanish state. This group affirmed the progressive spirit of the Second Vatican Council and adopted a resolution asking the pardon of the Spanish people for the hierarchy's partisanship in the Civil War. At the Episcopal Conference convened inthe bishops demanded the separation of church and state, and they called for a revision of the Concordat. Subsequent negotiations for such a revision broke down because Franco refused to relinquish the power to veto Vatican appointments.
This evolution in the church's position divided Spanish Catholics.
Within the institution, right-wing sentiment, opposed to any form of democratic change, was typified by the Brotherhood of Spanish Priests, the members of which published vitriolic attacks on church reformers. Opposition took a more violent form in such groups as the rightist Catholic terrorist organization known as the Warriors of Christ the Kingwhich assaulted progressive priests and their churches.
Whereas this reactionary faction was vociferous in its resistance to any change within the church, other Spanish Catholics were frustrated at the slow pace of reform in the church and in society, and they became involved in various leftist organizations.
In between these extreme positions, a small, but influential, group of Catholics—who had been involved in lay Catholic organizations such as Catholic Action—favored liberalization in both the church and the regime, but they did not enter the opposition forces.Did Catholics really kill 95 million people? - The Myth of the Spanish Inquisition
They formed a study group called Tacito, which urged a gradual transition to a democratic monarchy. The group's members published articles advocating a Christian democratic Spain. Transition to democracy[ edit ] Because the church had already begun its transformation into a modern institution a decade before the advent of democracy to Spain, it was able to assume an influential role during the transition period that followed Franco's death.
Furthermore, although disagreements over church-state relations and over political issues of particular interest to the Roman Catholic Church remained, these questions could be dealt with in a less adversarial manner under the more liberal atmosphere of the constitutional monarchy.
Although church-state relations involved potentially polarizing issues, the church played a basically cooperative and supportive role in the emergence of plural democracy in Spain. Although it no longer had a privileged position in society, its very independence from politics and its visibility made it an influential force.
In Julythe Suarez government and the Vatican signed a new accord that restored to the church its right to name bishops, and the church agreed to a revised Concordat that entailed a gradual financial separation of church and state. Church property not used for religious purposes was henceforth to be subject to taxation, and gradually, over a period of years, the church's reliance on state subsidies was to be reduced.