Friction Massage - Physiopedia
Transverse friction massage (also known as cross-friction and cross-fiber massage) is a technique that Cyriax indicates that lesions in these areas might be intractable except to transverse friction areas by static palpation can also be used. In addition to producing reflex effects similar to those of superficial stroking digital compression, digital pressure, direct pressure, static friction, and deep. Here's how I interpret this question: enter image description here. We have two equations: The horizontal projection of the 2 kg force equals μ times the sum of.
A conference highlighted the state of affairs of massage therapies and emphasized the need for a better mechanistic understanding of this preventative and restorative treatment, as well as the development of animal models for clinical conditions that resemble conditions massage therapists treat [ 2 ].
It was concluded that a single session of Swedish massage may have promise for managing inflammatory and autoimmune conditions.
Collectively, these studies have begun to address biologic mechanisms for massage-based therapies.
However, the forces applied to the tissues during the massage sessions were not quantified making it difficult to establish true causation between the forces and biologic responses. Although consensus for the clinical indications and prescription for massage therapies and the specific techniques is still rather elusive, a combination of compressive and transverse longitudinally along the tissue forces are typically applied [ 9 ].
Both superficial and deep techniques are commonly employed, yet the actual force magnitudes applied to the soft tissues skin, fascia, muscle, tendon, and ligament are still unknown. To this end, our laboratory has developed an animal model where the mechanical and biologic effects of massage-like loading MLL are studied [ 451011 ]. We attempt to approximate Swedish massage by externally applying a constant compressive force to the rabbit tibialis anterior TA muscle following eccentric exercise ECC [ 1213 ].
We have shown that a dose—response relationship exists with an optimal magnitude, duration, and frequency of MLL producing maximal recovery of muscle and joint function [ 11 ]. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first objective and quantifiable measures of change in both active and passive tissue properties with the application of ex vivo tissue loading intended to simulate massage.
- Transverse forces in skeletal muscle with massage-like loading in a rabbit model
In the current study, we report for the first time on the transverse forces that result under the conditions described above. The purpose of the current study is twofold: This is not quite as efficient, but easier to do in an emergency.
A final option is to have your car take care of the braking for you, through antilock brakes or more sophisticated computer-controlled means. Antilock brakes do the same thing as you do; pump the brakes. The best solution is, of course, to drive slower.
Traveling around a curve causes you to experience a slightly different set of forces, as you must deal with the tendency for a car to want to travel straight ahead. This is explained by Newton's 1st law: In this case, you are causing the car to change lateral velocity and move to the side by applying frictional force from the tires.
If the tires don't have a coefficient of friction large enough to provide the force needed to move the car laterally, then you slide straight forward and off the road. The pain will gradually diminish during the massage.
Transverse forces in skeletal muscle with massage-like loading in a rabbit model
The patient must adopt a posture that will adequately expose the tendon. If the lesion lies in the belly of the muscle, the muscle must be put on slack.Introduction to Static and Kinetic Friction by Bobby
This will aid in separation of the muscle fibers during the massage. Tendons with a sheath must be put on stretch to assure maximum success of the massage. The contraindications include skin diseases, inflammation due to bacterial action, traumatic en rheumatoid arthritiscalcification in soft tissue, bursitis and tunnel syndromes . Key Research However, there is no scientific evidence supporting such assumptions because massage is unlikely to increase muscle blood flow   and studies are lacking on the effects of massage on the realignment of fibers.
Nevertheless the inflammatory response to damaged muscle fibers causing a transfer of fluid and cells to damaged tissue is an established fact . The increased fluid produces swelling after injury. Neutrophils and macrophages migrate to the inflammatory sites and play a role in both the damage and repair processes . Literature about the effects of friction massage in the treatment of tendinitis provides us several insides. In Davidson et al.
This injection caused a collagen fiber disruption and misalignment. Afterwards they applied longitudinally augmented soft tissue mobilization on the tendon which resulted in fibroblast activation, leading to collagen synthesis. Friction massage is said to stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fiber realignment with cross linkages .
They also performed a gait analysis which exposed an improvement in the step length and frequency.
A case report  demonstrated the potential benefit of a multimodal approach in patients with a shoulder impingement. This conclusion is supported by earlier articles       that suggest the multimodal approach is an appropriate method for the successful conservative management of shoulder problems.
This approach consisted of following interventions: Longitudinal and transverse frictions were applied to the posterior tenomuscular junction of the infraspinatus muscle, the coracoacromial ligament and the insertion of the supraspinatus on the greater tubercle of the humerus. The transverse motion across the involved tissue and the resultant hyperaemia are said to be the main healing factors of friction massage. The hyperaemia is supposed to release histamine and bradykinins resulting in vasodilation and reduction of oedema .
The transverse action is said to prevent the formation of scar tissue while longitudinal friction effects the transportation of blood and lymph . A successful management of a chronic bursitis by using a soft tissue friction massage was also mentioned by Hammer .