relationships to which the educational system is linked. A list of 34 from school districts serving the wealthy to school districts serving the poor. . is the best known example of this attempt (Connell, White and Johnston, ). . These facts about education systems require us to re-think 'social justice in education' in . Abbreviations xxv. Executive Summary . Diseases of School-Age Children in Poor Countries. 50 .. Tara O'Connell, Operations Officer, School Health, Nutrition, School. Feeding Association for the Development of Education in Africa. AIDS. Using meta-regression, we found that the relation between neighbourhoods and individual The four most commonly used characteristics are: neighbourhood poverty, the Several reviews have attempted to summarise the literature about Connell, J. P., Spencer, M. B. and Aber, J. L. () Educational risk and.
Furthermore, given a certain level of neighbourhood disorder, there may be less social cohesion, which may create a situation in which residents are less able to control deviant behaviour or enforce positive norms related to education.
Several reviews have attempted to summarise the literature about neighbourhood effects on educational outcomes, providing insight into the importance of neighbourhoods, the mechanisms by which neighbourhoods exert their influence, and the methodologies that can be used in this field. However, these reviews were conducted for specific subsamples Johnsondo not quantify their results Dietz ; Leventhal and Brooks-Gunnor are dated Jencks and Mayer Despite their significant value, such studies cannot explain the great diversity of results found in this field.
We address these gaps through a systematic quantitative overview of the literature that has studied the influence of neighbourhood characteristics on educational outcomes.Fix Poverty, Fix Education or Fix Nothing - Tony Allen - TEDxWilmington
The variation in effect sizes might potentially be explained by differences between the study designs employed across the research in this area. To further examine this question, we use a meta-regression approach to analyse 88 studies.
In this approach, we take the coefficients of the neighbourhood variables from the original studies and use them as the dependent variable in a new regression. This strategy allows us to identify the overall effect sizes of the four neighbourhood characteristics.
Furthermore, we develop hypotheses regarding a range of study characteristics and test how they influence the results of the studies in question. Hypotheses In this section, we consider how nine study characteristics might influence the neighbourhood effect. We begin by considering the context in which each study was conducted; more specifically, we look at the difference between USA- and Europe-based studies. Second, we consider the composition of the sample in terms of gender and age.
Finally, we formulate hypotheses regarding the use of control variables such as previous individual educational attainment, parental behaviour, school characteristics, and family SES. Level of segregation In the meta-analysis, we included only developed countries.
Hence, we expect some degree of comparability between countries; however, we also expect some differences. Because most of the studies were conducted in the USA or less commonly in Europe, it is logical to investigate the differences between them.
Ethnic and socio-economic segregation is higher in the USA than in Europe, and the ethnically concentrated neighbourhoods in Europe are more mixed in terms of the country of origin of their inhabitants than are those of the USA, where more mono-ethnic communities can be found Musterd ; Wacquant The poor in Europe are not as isolated as in the USA, and they may gain more from their closer proximity to middle-class citizens, whereas the US poor tend to be more isolated and lack connections with the middle class Wilson For the US poor, this can generate feelings of misrecognition due to stigmatisation, frustration about being denied the rights enjoyed by more affluent members of society, and the absence of perceived future opportunities because of a lack of good role models who perform well in school Ainsworth ; Honneth There has been some support for threshold effect theories in neighbourhood research, indicating that beyond a certain threshold, the detrimental effect of neighbourhoods increases drastically Galster ; Quercia and Galster This finding implies that at high levels of segregation, neighbourhood effects are more pronounced.
At the end of the spectrum, neighbourhoods are more highly segregated in the USA than in Europe. Thus, we expect the US research to find stronger neighbourhood effects because the slope becomes much steeper past the threshold. The difference between boys and girls may also be explained as a function of parental monitoring: Furthermore, boys have been found to exhibit higher levels of externalising behaviour e.
Neighbourhoods with more social control may reduce this problematic behaviour to some extent Drukker et al. Given these arguments, we expect boys to exhibit a stronger neighbourhood effect than girls. Sample age composition The literature on educational achievement contains studies that examine different age groups. The age composition of a sample might influence neighbourhood effects to some extent. Because adolescents spend significant amounts of time away from their homes, parents are less able to monitor them Kerr et al.
This may result in greater exposure to the influence of a neighbourhood than younger children experience, as parents are better able to monitor the behaviour of the latter. Therefore, we expect stronger neighbourhood effects for adolescents than for younger children.
Individual previous attainment Neighbourhood residents are not randomly distributed over neighbourhoods; rather, they often cluster within neighbourhoods based on characteristics including income and educational attainment. The neighbourhood effects identified by studies that do not consider relevant background characteristics may be a result of the clustering of youth with certain educational attainment within certain neighbourhoods. Therefore, we expect studies that consider previous individual educational attainment indicators to find weaker neighbourhood effects.
Parenting Parental behaviour is assumed to be one of the key factors in adolescent development and educational outcomes Bronfenbrenner Research that considers parenting within the context of a neighbourhood shows that parents adapt their parenting behaviour to the conditions of the neighbourhood Duncan and Raudenbush ; Furstenberg et al.
To shield their children from this negative influence, parents in such neighbourhoods may use more protective parenting strategies or restrict outside recreational activities to areas where they can exert more supervision e. In neighbourhoods with higher ethnic diversity, the reasoning is similar: In using stricter monitoring strategies, parents attempt to minimise the effect that deviant neighbourhood peers may have on their children, thus attempting to control the influences to which their children are exposed despite the challenges posed by the neighbourhood in which they live Furstenberg et al ; Jarrett As argued above, parenting strategies vary with the neighbourhoods in which families reside.
Because parenting is likely to be related to the extent to which children are protected from detrimental neighbourhood influences, we expect the neighbourhood variable slope coefficient to be different when parenting is controlled for in a study.
Because of the greater perceived threat of neighbourhood influences in poor neighbourhoods Galster and Santiagoparents in poor neighbourhoods are likely to make more of an effort to monitor their children than do parents in affluent neighbourhoods Fauth et al.
If a study fails to control for parenting, the weakening effect of parenting on the neighbourhood effect should be reflected in the neighbourhood coefficient, decreasing its slope. Studies that do control for parenting should find a stronger neighbourhood coefficient because the weakening influence of parenting on the neighbourhood effect is reflected in the parenting coefficient.
The same reasoning applies if parenting is held constant across poor and affluent neighbourhoods, but it is assumed that children in poor neighbourhoods benefit more from parenting as a form of protection from negative neighbourhood influence. Studies that do not control for parenting may find a weaker neighbourhood effect because the shielding effect of parenting detracts from the neighbourhood effect.
Including the parenting variable makes the neighbourhood effect more pronounced, and the weakening effect of parenting is reflected in the coefficient of the parenting variable.
The above reasoning leads us to expect that controlling for parenting will strengthen the negative neighbourhood coefficient. Schools Various social contexts shape the educational development of adolescents.
They knew as much, but about different things. It was the most intense research collaboration in my career, and the four of us remain friends, nearly thirty years later. From this project I got an undeserved reputation as knowing about poverty. So I was commissioned to do a national study of the Disadvantaged Schools Programme, to help a re-thinking of this very creative programme.
I worked intensively on this with Viv White and Ken Johnston, and in quick time we put together a portfolio of studies including surveys of teachers, oral history, school case studies, conceptual work and policy proposals.
But in the late s education reforms in the interest of social justice were under attack by neoliberals. Our project reports were shelved by the hard-faced men who now controlled education policy in Canberra. Deakin University came to the rescue and published them as Running Twice as Hard, masquerading as an education policy case study. I kept thinking about the issues, and a couple of years later, on the invitation of the Canadian journal Our Schools Ourselves, published a little book called Schools and Social Justice.
But the Australian publisher went broke, so the book was never reprinted and had little impact locally.
The Harvard Educational Review - HEPG
Curiously my paper in a mainstream US educational journal was reprinted four times overseas. By now I also had a lot of experience with gender research see Gender. Making the Difference had fascinating material on gender relations in families, schools and adolescent life. We wrote several articles about this, and a splendidly-illustrated booklet called Ockers and Disco-maniacs. Later I did a life-history project on masculinity that yielded a good deal of evidence about experiences of school.
I did write a number of papers about this, showing how schools constructed multiple masculinities, through curriculum differences, discipline, sports and peer group life, and how schools handled the relations between masculinities. At the turn of the new century, I had a job as professor of education and became involved, with Steve Crump and colleagues from the NSW school system, in a study of new vocational education courses in senior high school.
Since then I have been trying to analyze how market agendas and corporate power work in education, in universities as well as schools. The neoliberal cascade and education: Critical Studies in Education, vol.
An attempt to gain a perspective on how neoliberalism works in education, as a major though rarely dramatised arena of struggle over the future shape of society.
Good teachers on dangerous ground: Newly powerful accreditation bodies, and massive testing programmes, are changing the official definition of a good teacher. Working-class families and the new secondary education.
Australian Journal of Education, vol. During a project on new vocational curricula in NSW high schools, we interviewed parents, students and teachers. Our discussions with rural and urban working-class families traced an uncertain yet vital relationship with the school system in the upper secondary years. Teachers College Record, vol. Gender research opened questions about how masculinities are made in the course of growing up.