Specific language impairment: the relevance of the initial diagnosis
Brain injury, Difficulty making connections, inferences and using . In a family with a child with a speech and language impairment, which of the . Accurate Developmental, Mental Health/Behavioral, and Academic Screens . test results, but also the relationship between each test's reading level and the. Click here to get an answer to your question ✍ What accurately describes the relationship between brain damage and language. Playwright is what accurately describes the relationship between brain damage and language impairment mahoran habitancy. Factually.
The MRIs showed perisylvian polymicrogyria location and extent of variants in all individuals. The clinical assessment also showed alterations in oral and written language in all individuals The study included two hundred and sixteen children who were subjected to assessment of auditory processing and language before and after treatment, finding a result that this intervention to treat a hypothesis of auditory processing deficit was not significantly effective in improving general language skills general or abilities of temporal and language processing Another study investigated the correlation between temporal processing the standard test frequency - TPF and language impairment language processing.
It was observed in the percentage of correct TSCC decreasing with increasing syntactic complexity. In the comparison between the groups, the difference in performance was statistically significant in TSCC. Results suggest that the PPT is correlated with skills of syntactic complexity. The low performance of TPF can serve as an additional indication of deficits in complex language processing6.
With this, the authors tried to identify specific features of the three syndromes. The results demonstrated that resilience is one of the most important factors to differentiate between these three diseases. They emphized that the problems of development in cognition and communication related to subjacent perceptual dysfunctions can lead to inappropriate adaptive behavior, which produce similarities between individuals with autism, SLI and mental disorders, although the three disorders have specific profile of cognitive, social and verbal communication.
This study demonstrates the importance of evaluating specific behavior to a more accurate diagnosis, differentiating such evolutionary situations, as it is known that while the SLI is a specific language impairment, mental impairment includes language and cognition, both of which can have a social interaction more appropriate than the autistic individuals, the ones who have alterations in three areas: In relation to the social and emotional impairment experienced by these children before their communicative disability, the assessment of the psychologist and subsequent monitoring of the child and family contributes to the differentiation of aspects of importance in defining the diagnoses In a study of children with speech problems, it was found that 23 9 girls and 14 boys were SLI and 85 with speech disorder.
They also verified that the 23 children with SLI and speech disorder had a higher risk for attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity - Inattentive type It was noticed that the incidence of autism spectrum characteristics of this sample was of 3.
They conclude that children and young people with SLI have an increased risk for having features of the autistic spectrum The question is investigated by studying how the two disorders are qualitatively different or simply differ quantitatively along a continuum of severity. To answer this question, 14 boys and 8 girls were studied, aged between 11 and 16 years, with reading and language problems, noting that the individuals who had small and symmetrical brain structures negative risk had significant changes in understanding and individuals with increased and asymmetric brain structures positive risk had good reading in the presence of preserved comprehension.
The best performance was of children with anatomical risk close to zero with normal brain structures. These results indicate the significance of evaluation of language comprehension as important information to distinguish the cases of developmental dyslexia with SLI, as well as confirm that the rapid automatic naming is not provided by the anatomical risk index, but by anatomical measures derived from the frontal lobe. Children with developmental dyslexia with and without comprehension have anatomical alterations that distinguish them from the children with normal development Therapy, Education and Prognosis Lots of studies have demonstrated the concern of experts to develop programs for speech therapy interventions in cases of language impairment.
From different theoretical orientations, researches are developed to contribute to the effectiveness of the therapy of these disorders, among them the SLI Some studies point to the efficiency of direct speech therapy with the individuals with SLI, although they emphasize that evolution is not very extensive in some cases, being responsible for the attribution of reserved prognosis.
However, early diagnosis with early intervention is a factor that promotes greater change in the language of 10 individuals with SLI. Based on the use of a psycholinguistic model, a recent study intended to verify the effectiveness of speech therapy in the phonological development of children with SLI.
This study is made of four preschool children with mixed SLI without compromise praxis, of both genders, aged between 48 and 83 months. The intervention was based on previous evaluation in structured sessions and guided by the therapist and also respected the need for each individual, effectively describing the involved issues.
At the end of the study, it was found that the use of the Psycholinguistic Model is an effective tool to treat phonological difficulties in children with SLI Another study that describes the treatment of SLI suggests the possibility of semantic compensation for the sintatic processing deficit31, but there is also the presentation of therapeutic strategies of syntactic basis and of syntactic-semantic basis, demonstrating that both are effective Techniques for teaching verbs through prototypical members of each category are analyzed in their effectiveness33, demonstrating that individuals with SLI depend a lot on the input to be successful in speech production.
In this context, the narrative skills are been used during the therapeutic process, allowing the audiologist to check the language, cognitive and social skills of children with SLI. Another form of therapy is indirect with parents, which is investigated in a study that analyzed children divided into therapy groups - directly and indirectly, and found that, for the early evolution, there is no difference between the direct therapy with the child and the parents. However, there is an evidence of more effective therapy directly to older individuals, being the therapies of minutes three times a week, much more productive than the ones carried out in every 15 days for the improvement of the speech production The effectiveness of different models of therapy in 24 individuals with SLI aged 4 years to 4: The study points to the better efficacy of direct therapy in these kinds of cases, comparing them with yhe indirect therapy Regarding prognosis, there is concrete evidence that SLI can contribute to the appearing of reading problems especially reading comprehension and written language This fact supports the need to be aware of this disorder within the first two years of life, to minimize or prevent linguistic injuries, educational and social problems to these children.
This requires an interdisciplinary partnership for diagnosis and therapeutic process, which contributes to the organization of expectations, the environment and the frustrations of children and families in relation to their performance. From this implemented review, it is possible to demonstrate the main important factors in the diagnosis and therapy of individuals with SLI, summarized in Figure 1. Regarding the diagnosis, it is important to differentiate the autistic individuals with SLI, taking the sociability as an important point, once the last ones present more significant alterations in this aspect.
The diagnosis can be made between 18 and 24 months, if provided that they pay attention to parental perceptions about the linguistic evolution of their children.
Researches have shown that such perceptions are reliable and that early intervention provides better results and evolutionary predictions. The researches also show that the action with families can help to minimize the initial damage of language, being essential to the early detection of the disorder with the underprivileged population in which there is greater risk for it. To make this, it is necessary to expand a government investment of groups from the Health Care Family Program, to provide a greater number of members to continuously monitor the families, as well as specialists pediatrician, speech therapist, psychologist, etc.
Considering the etiology, the SLI appears to have multifactorial pattern, ie, there are genetic alterations related to disorder and socio-emotional factors that enhance gene expression. In terms of therapy, both indirect therapy via continuing education with parents and the direct one are effective, but the exclusive indirect only works in early developmental stages of the child. The problems of school learning should be observed as there is a common association between SLI and attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity, dyslexia and auditory processing problems.
The sooner there is a diagnosis, therapeutic intervention and education, the better the prognosis for social adaptation of individuals with SLI is. Finally, recent studies in the enunciative field, suggest that the processes of evaluation and therapy should be focused on the functioning of language, especially in dialogue with people who arec closer to them because these acts can be different and are always unique, despite the similarities in the biological limitations of different individuals.
They say, then, that intersubjectivity can not be neglected in speech making, especially in times of psychic and language constitution. Lexical-semantic organization in children with specific language impairment.
J Speech Lang Hear Res. Gesture production and comprehension in children with specific language impairment. Br J Dev Psychol.
Miller C, Gilbert E. Comparison of performance on two nonverbal intelligence tests by adolescents with and without language impairment. Girbau D, Schwartz R. Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development; Consultado [setembro de ]. Tuckman R, Rapin I. New England Journal of Medicine.
J Soc Bras Fonoaudiol. Rev Soc Bras Fonoaudiol. Diagnosticando o transtorno autista: Narration of stories by children with specific language impairment original title: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Markiewicz K, Pachalska M.
Diagnosis of severe developmental disorders in children under three years of age. J Abonorm Child Psychol. The prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in adolescents with a history of specific language impairment SLI.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Individual differences in anatomy predict reading and oral language impairments in children. Marinis T, Lely HK van der. On-line processing of wh-questions in children with G-SLI and typically developing children. Int J Lang Commun Disord. Intervention for verb argument structure in children with persistent SLI: Verb schema use and input dependence in 5-year-old children with specific language impairment SLI. A randomized controlled trial and economic evaluation of direct versus indirect and individual versus group modes of speech and language therapy for children with primary language impairment.
Right hemisphere brain damage - Wikipedia
In particular, it has been demonstrated through multiple studies to significantly reduce neuronal losses and to improve cognitive and neurological outcomes associated with these traumatic events.
Acetylcysteine has been safely used to treat paracetamol overdose for over forty years and is extensively used in emergency medicine.
Treatment It is important to begin emergency treatment within the so-called " golden hour " following the injury. In the acute stage the primary aim of the medical personnel is to stabilize the patient and focus on preventing further injury because little can be done to reverse the initial damage caused by trauma. Other methods to prevent damage include management of other injuries and prevention of seizures.
Sedativesanalgesics and paralytic agents are often used. Failing to maintain blood pressure can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain. While they can be treated with benzodiazepinesthese drugs are used carefully because they can depress breathing and lower blood pressure. Surgery can be performed on mass lesions or to eliminate objects that have penetrated the brain. Mass lesions such as contusions or hematomas causing a significant mass effect shift of intracranial structures are considered emergencies and are removed surgically.
Once medically stable, people may be transferred to a subacute rehabilitation unit of the medical center or to an independent rehabilitation hospital. Physiatrists or neurologists are likely to be the key medical staff involved, but depending on the person, doctors of other medical specialties may also be helpful.
Allied health professions such as physiotherapyspeech and language therapycognitive rehabilitation therapyand occupational therapy will be essential to assess function and design the rehabilitation activities for each person.
Treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as emotional distress and clinical depression may involve mental health professionals such as therapistspsychologistsand psychiatristswhile neuropsychologists can help to evaluate and manage cognitive deficits. Community-based rehabilitation will be required for a high proportion of people, including vocational rehabilitation; this supportive employment matches job demands to the worker's abilities.
Right hemisphere brain damage
The most effective research documented intervention approach is the activation database guided EEG biofeedback approach, which has shown significant improvements in memory abilities of the TBI subject that are far superior than traditional approaches strategies, computers, medication intervention.
The TBI's auditory memory ability was superior to the control group after the treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhage approximately doubles mortality. The Functional Independence Measure is a way to track progress and degree of independence throughout rehabilitation.
Examples are hypotension low blood pressurehypoxia low blood oxygen saturationlower cerebral perfusion pressures and longer times spent with high intracranial pressures. Factors thought to worsen it include abuse of substances such as illicit drugs and alcohol and age over sixty or under two years in children, younger age at time of injury may be associated with a slower recovery of some abilities. Complications of traumatic brain injury The relative risk of post-traumatic seizures increases with the severity of traumatic brain injury.
Improvement of neurological function usually occurs for two or more years after the trauma. For many years it was believed that recovery was fastest during the first six months, but there is no evidence to support this.
It may be related to services commonly being withdrawn after this period, rather than any physiological limitation to further progress.