A dialogue between two friends after a long time. | Englishfor2day
Here is a virtual talk between two people. Imagine that there is a visitor called Mark coming from a forign country to visit his friend Ahmed. They are at the airport, and meeting for the first time. Conversation with vowels indicated. Arriving at Beijing International Airport S. Taking a taxi 2 S Two friends bump in to each other S Changing the time of a meeting 3 S. Raj: Hi Suman. How are you? Suman: Hello Raj. Fine, thanks! How do you do? Raj: Very well, thank you. It has been a long time after our last.
And this is my own view. What is a script? It is a motif, a pattern, a theme, a meme, a programme, a way of acting or being or feeling, a role. Take a trivial example: You smile, you make eye-contact, you say: There are larger-scale scripts too, what we might also call roles: We have a complicated nexus of expectations about what it is to be a friend or a father.
In that respect, the script of fatherhood is as big as scripts get. But it has relatively small-scale components too, which are themselves also scripts — like reading school reports, giving out pocket money and impulsive banknotes, exchanging Christmas presents, cuddling, and providing a free taxi service.
Scripts, then, undeniably generate norms. And, like the virtues and practices that correlate with them, scripts are socially constructed, socially conditioned and historically modulated. Scripts are also, of course, things that are performed. So gender is indeed, as they say, performed — as too are fatherhood and friendship, and introduction and birthday-celebration. Ethical life is not really imaginable without scripts; not, at any rate, without any scripts.
What would ethical life look like, if our social milieu gave us no guidelines or clues or cues about how to act, behave or be in all the various particular situations in which we find ourselves? Such a life sounds a bit like the radical freedom of the existentialist individual. Existentialism makes every kind of practice, disposition, convention, role or script a standing threat to our freedom. But we cannot breathe in a vacuum, and we cannot be agents in a world without scripts. But too little adherence to scripts is bad as well.
It leads to social Dada, the practical unintelligibility that comes from acting, whether or not deliberately, in ways that make no sense relative to the already-existing social repertoire.
Are gender scripts so bad we should just abolish them? It is central to virtue to be creative in the way we use, inhabit and indeed extend the scripts we have inherited.
I can and do riff off the patterns, motifs and themes that relevant scripts suggest to me in concrete individual situations. A musician finds herself composing or performing at the leading edge of a long and rich musical tradition. Good performance and good composition necessarily involve her in using the resources of this history, in taking up the cues and the prompts that it implicitly gives her. Musical creativity means putting this tradition to new uses: At best, our use of scripts in ethical life is closely analogous to this sort of musical creativity.
However, clearly there are some entire scripts that we ought simply to reject as part of our social-ethical repertoire. But no one ought to follow scripts of these kinds. Such scripts will be cages — not simply because they are scripts, but because of the particular scripts they are. Such scripts should certainly be abolished. Are gender scripts like that, too — so bad we should just abolish them?
The only thing wrong with most feminist campaigning against, for example, body-shaming advertisements is simply that they ought to have made more noise. And it is not only women who suffer from the bad effects of popular representations of their gender script. I am entirely happy to be a gender revisionist; I already am a gender revisionist. I just want to rewrite them radically.
And I think being a trans woman gives me a distinctive perspective on how to do that.
But this cuts both ways. Trans women need to be allies to feminists, and to lesbian and gay people. As a gender-critical feminist, I make a distinction between sex and gender. Sex, in my view, is a cluster of biological properties primary sex-characteristics being external and internal genitalia, gonads, chromosomes, hormones ; gender is the set of social norms applied to sex the ways that male and female people are expected to be.
Gender is binary and hierarchical: Such terms are useful for solidarity, self-understanding and the ability to organise politically in the pursuit of common interests. Female people, of course, are not the only oppressed social group. There are multiple axes of oppression race, class, gender and of disadvantage sexuality, gender identity, disability and these can intersect in complicated ways.
Gender-critical feminists need not claim that gender is the fundamental axis of oppression in order to be justified in caring about it. The sooner that conflicts of interest between these groups are acknowledged, the sooner we can figure out how to resolve them. I outline what I identify as two key tensions: The second relates to the proposed legal shift in the UK and New Zealand towards a regime of legal self-identification for sex, while the first does not.
Many lesbian, gay and bisexual people understand their sexuality to relate to the sex, not the gender or gender identityof their prospective partners.
That is to say, lesbians are same-sex attracted females, and gay men are same-sex attracted males, and bisexuals are attracted to both females and males. These are minority identities that stand in contrast to the dominant heterosexuality of our societies.
For example, lesbians who refuse to date trans women in particular, trans women who have penisesgay men who refuse to date trans men in particular, trans men who have vulvasand bisexuals who refuse to date trans people perhaps because they prefer congruence between sex and gender identity in their partners stand accused of transphobia. A recent study on the exclusion of trans people from dating found that only 12 per cent of respondents were willing to consider dating trans people the study had participants, of whom were cis.
Lesbian and gay people were a little more willing, with The most willing group was bisexual, queer and nonbinary people, 52 per cent of whom were willing to date a trans person.
Despite the fact that straight people were the most unwilling, and gay men much less willing than lesbians, the social pile-on has been focused on lesbians.
The dating study was also revealing of the extent to which sexuality tracks sex rather than gender: But a better explanation is available: Of course, sexual and romantic preferences are not formed in a vacuum, and we can all be asked to reflect on the extent to which our preferences have been socially and historically shaped.
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Trans people are far from the only social group discriminated against in dating. On the contrary, society relentlessly feeds them positive stereotypes about males, which they have to actively fight against in order to claim their own sexualities.
Many lesbians, and indeed many feminists more generally, resist the idea that they have a gender identity What we might want to say to gay and lesbian people about the way they exclude people with disabilities, or people from a different racial group, is very different from what we might want to say to them about the exclusion of trans people of the opposite sex.
To put the point weakly, everyone is trans-exclusionary when it comes to dating, so lesbians do not deserve special attention; to put it more strongly, straight people are trans-exclusionary while lesbian and gay people are not, so lesbians do not deserve any attention at all.
Putting social pressure on lesbians to include males has to stop. Trans people can be allies to lesbian and gay people by refusing to perpetuate this kind of homophobia, and by calling it out when they see it.
A guide released by the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy says that: Inclusivity sounds like a good thing, and indeed some trans women who date women do identify as lesbians.
These two definitions are mutually exclusive, from a gender-critical feminist perspective, because we claim that trans women are males. In the past, sex and gender went hand in hand: Transgender identities decouple the two, asserting that women can be male and men can be female. Many lesbians, and indeed many feminists more generally, resist the idea that they have a gender identity.
Some people push back on this argument by saying that the burden of proof should be on anyone who wants to exclude, which would put the burden on the first definition. Others, like me, think that history matters, and that the term still protects a minority identity.
As bell hooks says in Feminism Is for Everybody This legacy should be continually acknowledged and cherished. She says that scripts are suggestions, starting points for creativity, and challenges to our ingenuity and imagination. They can be riffed-off, edited and revised. This is a view of gender that sees a problem not in the fact that there are gender roles, but in the fact that these roles are treated as constraints rather than springboards for improvisation.
Women are still imprisoned by the cage of gendered expectations of womanhood and femininity. This is life around the world for female people under patriarchy. In this actual world, where gender is a cage, some women are worried about the proposed legal reforms that would make sex a matter of self-identification. They have a range of reasons for being concerned.
One is the question of how to maintain female-only spaces: Because women have a well-founded fear of male violence, they have an interest in maintaining sex-segregated spaces.
Because women are a politically oppressed class, they have an interest in maintaining spaces for solidarity and shared experience with other women. These interests are threatened by a legal shift to self-identification. This would change the social norms around who must be accepted as being female, and therefore who has a claim to inclusion within those spaces.
These are people who will have at least some history of male socialisation — which is a matter of how others treat you, and so not something a person can simply reject, even if they have had dysphoria. They might end up performing male-pattern violence or male-pattern sexual offences against women. The sooner we understand each other, the sooner we can engage over the substance of the conflict of interests Being a good ally depends crucially on understanding the interests of the group that one is an ally of.
I have lost friends and alienated colleagues. However, it would be hypocritical of me to accuse the other side of ignoring or failing to understand the concerns of gender-critical feminists while simultaneously failing to understand the concerns of trans people.
So let me articulate what I take those concerns to be. Trans women want to be socially accepted as women, and trans men want to be socially accepted as men. Trans people want their sexual identities respected. Trans people want to use the bathrooms and other sex-segregated services of the sex typically associated with their gender.
That is to say, trans women want to use female bathrooms, and trans men want to use male bathrooms. If trans people are unlucky enough to be sent to prison, they want to be imprisoned with others of their gender. Trans women feel particularly strongly about inclusion in female-only spaces. Partly this is because they have an understandable fear of male violence in male spaces; partly this is because they take there to be no socially salient differences between themselves and cis people of the same gender that would warrant their not being included.
I have done well in mathematics but I could not do well in English. You are a good student. If you revise your lesson frequently, you will do well.
How are you getting on with your studies? My preparation is so good in all subjects. Pray for me and thanks for your suggestion. Write a dialogue between you and your friend about importance of learning English. Good morning sir, how are you?
Transgender: a dialogue
I am fine, how are you? I am fine too. Sir, I want to know about necessity of learning English. Thank you for your curiosity. We know that English is an international language and communication defends on the language.
But, why shall we learn it? If you want to serve in a post office, in a foreign office, in an airport and to study higher education, you must know English. Now, I think that everybody should learn English. Because we can not progress in life without learn it. I hope that you have understood properly it. Thank you sir, for your advices. Write a dialogue between you and your headmaster on the basis of issuing a transfer certificate. A dialogue between the Headmaster and a student over a transfer certificate.
May I come in, sir? What do you want? Sir, I need a transfer certificate. Why do you need transfer certificate middle of the session? You know that my father is a government employee. He has recently transferred Noakhali to Chittagong. Where is your application? Here it is, sir. Now you must meet the head clerk. Write a dialogue between you and your friend regarding your future plan after the publication of the result.
A dialogue between two friends regarding their future pla after the publication of the result. Rajib, how are you? I am fine and what about you? You have passed S. Now what is you future plan.
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Yes, I want to be a doctor. After passing the H. Your plan is absolutely right. After all you have made a good result. Now, what is your intention? I want to be an English teacher.
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Your choice is so nice. There is so lack of qualified teacher in our country. Shila, how are you? I am fine and how about you?