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3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics are graphics that use a Visualization · Virtual engineering · Virtual reality · Virtual cinematography This defines spatial relationships between objects, including location and size. . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. The future of corporate history. Discover more about the companies and people that you do business with. Blender Data System (Wiki manual page); Note: Blender can import most popular This may become a web standard, the relationship to X3D does not seem Technologies for its Advanced Visualizer animation package. .skp is used by Google sketchup. ZTL is "Zbrush Tool 'ZBrush' by Pixologic, Inc.

The joint venture enhances Trimble's market position in survey instruments through geographic expansion and market penetration. The Nikon instruments broaden Trimble's survey and construction product portfolio and enable the Company to better access emerging markets in Russia, Eastern Europe, India and China.

It provides Trimble with the ability to sell its GPS and robotic technology to existing Nikon customers around the world. Additionally, the new company improves Trimble's market position in Japan, which remains a major market for survey instruments. The acquisition extends Trimble's technology portfolio and can enable increased robustness and capabilities in its future positioning products. A focus is in the survey and construction product lines where GPS, augmented with INS technology, offers the potential of improved satellite tracking and faster reacquisition times for precision RTK positioning.

This is particularly important in cases where GPS satellite signals are obstructed in difficult environments such as high-rise urban or heavily forested areas. The addition of 3D scanning to Trimble's other positioning technologies accelerates the development of new products that enhance productivity in Trimble's existing surveying, engineering and construction markets.

The addition of TracerNet's wireless fleet management solutions enables Trimble to expand its mobile resource management MRM solutions to include enterprise software applications.

The addition of GeoNav's software resources, expertise and products enable Trimble to better address local application requirements and provide customized survey solutions for the European market. GeoNav's suite of software products work seamlessly with Trimble's complete line of surveying systems including GPS rovers, base stations and optical total stations; they also provide acquisition, processing and display of precise real-time surveys.

Pacific Crest is a leading supplier of wireless data communication systems for positioning and environmental monitoring applications. Pacific Crest's high-quality radio modems provide the necessary data link to increase GPS accuracy. Applications that can take advantage of wireless communications for precision performance includes RTK surveying and construction machine control for earthmoving operations.

Apache designs, manufactures, and distributes professional laser products for construction leveling and alignment applications.

About Trimble | Company History - Present

The Apache acquisition extend Trimble's laser product portfolio for handheld laser detectors and entry-level machine displays and control systems. Apache's products set new standards for performance, accuracy, ruggedness, reliability, and repeatability in their respective markets and price ranges. Today, there are approximatelyvehicles in the DSD segment.

The MTS solution automates the sale and delivery of high-volume consumer products such as baked goods, beverages, dairy, frozen foods and snacks to retail stores. It provides real-time information to mobile field workers via handheld mobile computing devices to improve customer service levels, on-time deliveries and accurate invoicing.

The turnkey solution includes mobile hardware and software that seamlessly integrates with a supplier's existing enterprise resource planning ERP software system. With the acquisition, Trimble can now offer highly integrated fleet management and mobile computing solutions into the DSD segment. APS is a leading software development company that creates mobile and handheld software products used by law enforcement, fire-rescue and other public safety agencies.

APS's software provides real-time information to police officers via in-vehicle computers and handheld mobile computing devices to improve safety, productivity and accuracy. In addition, APS offers a variety of software solutions for fire and rescue personnel to complete inspection and emergency medical reports as well as mapping and Automatic Vehicle Location AVL applications. With the APS acquisition, Trimble plans to leverage its Tripod Data Systems' rugged mobile computing devices and Trimble Mobile Solutions' fleet management systems to provide complete mobile resource solutions for the public safety industry.

The purchase of The XYZs of GPS intellectual property extends Trimble's product portfolio of infrastructure solutions by providing software that enhances differential GNSS correction systems used in marine aides to navigation, surveying, civil engineering, hydrography, mapping and GIS, and scientific applications.

Quantm is a leader in transportation route optimization software used for planning highways, railways, pipelines and canals. The innovative software system enables infrastructure planners to examine and select route corridors and alignments that simultaneously optimize construction costs, environmental restrictions, existing feature avoidance and legislative obligations.

The improved solution for the proposed route results in significant reductions in project planning time and cost. Transportation route alignments generated by Quantm's software add another piece to Trimble's Connected Construction Site strategy by forming a closer link between the planning and design phases of a transportation project. The ultimate goal of the Connected Site seeks to improve efficiency through a tighter integration of construction process information.

Trimble acquired Eleven Technology, Inc. Eleven Technology is a mobile application software company with a leading market and technology position in the Consumer Packaged Goods CPG industry. Eleven Technology's solution automates the sale and delivery of high-volume consumer products such as baked goods, beverages, dairy, frozen foods and snacks to retail stores.

Eleven Technology has a complete solution suite for the CPG industry including applications for sales representatives, delivery drivers, merchandisers, field service technicians and supervisors. The solution includes mobile hardware and software that seamlessly integrates with a supplier's existing enterprise resource planning ERP software system.

With the acquisition of Mobile Tech Solutions and Eleven Technology, Trimble is well positioned to lead this vertical segment as well as leverage our mobile workforce and fleet management applications into a fully integrated mobile resource management solution.

BitWyse is a leading data management company specializing in 2D and 3D software applications for engineering and construction plant design. The purchase of BitWyse's assets extends Trimble's product portfolio of 3D scanning solutions by providing application-specific software capabilities within the Power, Process, and Plant vertical markets. These markets are increasingly utilizing 3D scanning data to create as-built drawings, verify construction specifications and improve productivity.

Visual Statement provides state-of-the-art software tools for crime and collision incident investigation, analysis and reconstruction, as well as state-wide enterprise solutions for reporting and analysis used by public safety agencies. The company is an additional investment in the Mobile Solutions business segment that supports Trimble's strategy of providing productivity solutions for mobile workers. The combination of APS and Visual Statement will provide a comprehensive suite of solutions to offer public safety agencies throughout the Americas.

XYZ Solutions provides real-time, interactive 3D intelligence software to manage the spatial aspects of a construction project. The software transforms data from various sources into actionable information that can be used in the decision making process to reduce rework and improve productivity for engineering and construction professionals.

XYZ Solutions' unique 3D software package allows users to model spatial information combined with positioning technologies to virtually "see" a construction site or asset, from anywhere, at any time, in a collaborative Internet-based environment. Within its interactive environment, decision support guidelines or business rules can be integrated into the solution set to virtually model "what-if" scenarios on a project in real-time increasing customer awareness and profitability.

Meridian Systems is an established market leader in construction project management technologies to the building owner and architecture, engineering and construction AEC market segments.

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Meridian Systems provides enterprise project management and lifecycle software for optimizing the plan, build and operate lifecycle for real estate, construction and other physical infrastructure projects.

Building owners, construction contractors, engineering firms, and government agencies use Meridian technology to reduce capital construction costs and improve project productivity. The acquisition of Meridian Systems adds the business and lifecycle management software component to Trimble's Connected Construction Site.

Trimble acquired Spacient Technologies, Inc. Spacient is a leading provider of enterprise field service management and mobile mapping solutions for municipalities and utilities. The acquisition enhances Trimble's GIS and Mapping business by further expanding its solutions for the field and mobile workforce-a strategic area of focus for the Company. In addition to its industry-leading technology, Road has developed deep domain expertise and a strong field service management capability within its MRM solution set to address challenges faced by a variety of industries, including transportation, distribution, telecommunications, cable, field service, utilities, facilities management and public works.

This complements Trimble's existing domain expertise in the construction supply, direct store delivery, public safety and utilities industries. INPHO is a leader in photogrammetry and digital surface modeling for aerial surveying, mapping and remote sensing applications. INPHO products are used by service companies offering geospatial data collection by photogrammetry and LIDAR as well as state authorities involved in supplying geospatial information.

Photogrammetry adds a new dimension to Trimble to address the geospatial information industry, which has primarily focused on ground or terrestrial-based positioning solutions. Breining is a provider of customized field data collection and office software solutions for the German survey and cadastral market. The addition of Breining software resources, expertise and products enable Trimble to further address local application requirements and provide customized survey solutions for the German market.

UtilityCenter software provides a comprehensive suite of workflow solutions designed to automate the daily business operations of utilities—from work management, asset inventory, outage management and job order tracking to regulatory compliance reporting and updating maps while in the field.

The acquisition of the UtilityCenter software enables Trimble to offer industry-specific field solutions to electric and gas utility customers. With a complete line of rugged data collection and mobile computing devices, TerraSync field asset software and UtilityCenter software, Trimble customers can now streamline many of their complex day-to-day operations.

Crain is a leading manufacturer of accessories for the geomatics, surveying, mapping, and construction industries. Crain's product lines include tripods, bipods, leveling rods, measuring rulers, prisms, prism and GPS poles, stream gauges, wire installation tools, as well as bags, packs, and sewn carrying cases for surveying and positioning instruments. The purchase of Crain allows Trimble to provide the necessary accessories that can be offered as part of its positioning solutions used in the Engineering and Construction markets.

In addition, Crain and Trimble will be able to leverage distribution channels. To further address local application requirements and provide customized survey solutions across Germany and in Europe, Trimble acquired privately-held HHK Datentechnik GmbH of Braunschweig, Germany in January of HHK is a provider of customized office and field software solutions for the cadastral survey market in Germany.

By automating roadside asset inventory management, transportation and utility organizations can increase productivity throughout the infrastructure's lifecycle. SECO specializes in the development, fabrication and machining of metallic accessory products while Crain is more focused on polymer and composite-based products.

These capabilities are expected to permit marked improvements in functionality for customers in next generation products. RolleiMetric is a leading provider of metric camera systems for aerial imaging and terrestrial close range photogrammetry.

RolleiMetric products broadens Trimble's portfolio of engineering scale mapping and asset management solutions. Additionally, RolleiMetric personnel will enable Trimble to bring metric camera optics and mechanical design expertise in-house.

With a customer base in Europe, North and South America, and Asia, RolleiMetric products are used by service companies collecting geospatial data by photogrammetry as well as state authorities and municipalities involved in supplying geospatial information. Trimble and Caterpillar announced a second joint venture in October The new company, VirtualSite Solutions, will integrate the deep expertise of both parent companies in the areas of product design and software development to transform the way contractors manage their businesses.

The joint venture will create information rich worksites allowing customers to more efficiently and safely manage their equipment fleets, reduce operating costs and improve productivity in the area of fuel consumption, maintenance, worksite productivity and fleet logistics.

Additionally, a new distribution channel will be established to bring these technologies to customers and other users. The new dealer distribution channel will be branded SITECH, and it will be the outlet for products and services for the aftermarket. To expand its precision agriculture solutions, Trimble acquired the assets of privately-held Tru Count, Inc. Tru Count is a leading manufacturer of air and electric clutches that automate individual planter row shut-off.

Tru Count air and electric clutches work on a variety of planters, regardless of make or model. The low-cost Tru Count Air Clutch is placed on each planter row and is controlled with compressed air—pneumatically from the tractor cab by a GPS system or manual controller.

The technology makes it easier for farmers to avoid over planting seed and can save on input costs. TopoSys is a leading provider of aerial data collection systems comprised of LiDAR and metric cameras. TopoSys aerial data collection systems are used by service companies collecting geospatial data by LiDAR and photogrammetry as well as state authorities and municipalities involved in supplying geospatial information. Typical applications include mapping for coastline protection, floodplain control, city modeling, opencast pit mining, and corridor mapping.

The acquisition extends Trimble's portfolio of engineering scale mapping and asset management solutions. Rawson manufactures hydraulic and electronic controls for the agriculture equipment industry, including variable rate planter drives and controllers, variable rate fertilizer controllers, mechanical remote electric control valves and speed reducers.

The controllers can be operated either automatically by GPS solutions or manually, both of which are supported by Trimble's portfolio of assisted steering or manual guidance products. With the addition of Rawson's technology, Trimble adds to its fully-integrated solution in the flow and application control market, allowing growers to choose how to guide, monitor, control and automate their farm machinery.

The acquisition, which includes software development, professional services and business development teams, will allow Trimble to expand its Mapping and GIS solutions to provide optimized software and professional services in Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Callidus is a provider of 3D laser scanning solutions for the industrial market. Callidus' products enhance Trimble's 3D scanning portfolio, with both close- and mid- range scanning technology.

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The Callidus CP time-of-flight and the Callidus CPW pulse-wave scanners are utilized for applications within the power and manufacturing process plant markets as well as in shipbuilding and offshore applications. Spatial data captured by 3D scanners is used throughout the plant lifecycle including design, operation and maintenance.

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The Callidus portfolio also includes the CT and CT close-range scanners used in dimensional inspection and quality control applications. In addition, QuickPen's asset management program allows contractors to manage their significant investment in tools and equipment.

The joint venture will be based in Beijing, China. NTech is a leading provider of crop-sensing technology that allows farmers to reduce costs and environmental impact by controlling the application of nitrogen, herbicide and other crop inputs.

The acquisition further expands Trimble's ability to offer innovative field applications for farmers. NTech products use optical sensing and variable rate application to apply only the inputs needed to maximize crop yield. Accutest is a leading provider of vehicle diagnostics and telematics technologies for the automotive industry. The acquisition expands Trimble's ability to offer comprehensive solutions for a variety of MRM applications including fleet management for light-duty and long-haul trucking.

Accutest manufactures products for system and software validation, hardware-in-the-loop, diagnostics, end-of-line test, remote on-board diagnostics, diagnostic access and monitoring, telematics and fleet management systems FMS access. The acquisition is expected to accelerate Trimble's information management capabilities and offer agricultural customers significant new capabilities in their precision farming operations.

Farm Works provides integrated office and mobile software solutions for both the farmer and agriculture service professional. The software is compatible with a wide range of file formats and hardware typically used in the agriculture equipment industry. Among its capabilities, Farm Works software can automatically capture field event data, downloaded from an in-cab display or handheld computer, for record keeping. The software also tracks most farm operations including vehicle monitoring, crop management, staffing, field mapping, chemical and fertilizer management, and cost accounting.

The software also includes a herd management and genealogy program for livestock producers. The joint venture, 50 percent owned by Trimble and 50 percent owned by CREEC, will leverage Trimble's commercial positioning, communications and software technologies and CREEC's expertise in rail design and construction to develop and provide digital railway solutions that address the design, construction and maintenance for the Chinese railway industry.

The joint venture will be based in Chengdu, China. Pondera is an engineering and development company offering services and software tools for siting, designing, optimizing, and maintaining high-voltage power transmission and distribution lines. The acquisition is part of Trimble's strategic initiative to bring productivity solutions to the electric utilities industry. LET Systems is an internationally recognized leader in incident and outage management system OMS solutions for utilities.

LET Systems provides OMS, network modeling, customer contact and mobile workforce management software for electric, gas, water and wastewater utilities. Trimble and Russian Space Systems formed a joint venture in Russia. Rusnavgeoset will be based in Moscow. A polygon of n points is an n-gon. Materials and textures[ edit ] Which includes giving the model the properties that the render engine uses to render the model, in an unbiased render engine like blender cycles one can give the model materials to tell the engine how to treat light when it hits the surface.

Textures are also used to give the material color like a color or albedo map, or give the surface features like bump or normal maps. It can be also used to deform the model itself like a displacement map.

Layout and animation[ edit ] Main article: Computer animation Before rendering into an image, objects must be laid out in a scene. This defines spatial relationships between objects, including location and size. Animation refers to the temporal description of an object i.

Popular methods include keyframinginverse kinematicsand motion capture. These techniques are often used in combination. As with animation, physical simulation also specifies motion. The two basic operations in realistic rendering are transport how much light gets from one place to another and scattering how surfaces interact with light.

Altering the scene into a suitable form for rendering also involves 3D projectionwhich displays a three-dimensional image in two dimensions. Autodesk 3ds Max or Blenderexclusive 3D rendering software also exists. A 3d model of a Dunkerque-class battleship rendered with flat shading Center right: