BBC Bitesize - National 4 Biology - Interdependency between animal and plant species - Revision 1
between living and non-living things within an ecosystem. METHOD AND . which cells are constructed. Cell. The smallest unit that is itself alive. Multicellular organism . In order to explore these feeding relationships, you need to be able to. Feeding Relationships, Food Chains Transformation of light energy to chemical energy to make food in the form of glucose. Examples: a. close, permanent relationship between organisms. b. 2) Friend alga cell is prepared to. greet Mr. Organisms at the top of a food chain have no predators. Feeding relationships in ecosystems, demonstrated by a food pyramid with 4 tiers, the widest.
Instead, heterotrophs get organic molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts. Animals, fungi, and many bacteria are heterotrophs. When we talk about heterotrophs' role in food chains, we can call them consumers. As we'll see shortly, there are many different kinds of consumers with different ecological roles, from plant-eating insects to meat-eating animals to fungi that feed on debris and wastes.
Food chains Now, we can take a look at how energy and nutrients move through a ecological community. Let's start by considering just a few who-eats-who relationships by looking at a food chain.
A food chain is a linear sequence of organisms through which nutrients and energy pass as one organism eats another. Let's look at the parts of a typical food chain, starting from the bottom—the producers—and moving upward. At the base of the food chain lie the primary producers. The primary producers are autotrophs and are most often photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, or cyanobacteria.
The organisms that eat the primary producers are called primary consumers.
Primary consumers are usually herbivores, plant-eaters, though they may be algae eaters or bacteria eaters. The organisms that eat the primary consumers are called secondary consumers. Secondary consumers are generally meat-eaters—carnivores. The organisms that eat the secondary consumers are called tertiary consumers.
These are carnivore-eating carnivores, like eagles or big fish.
Some food chains have additional levels, such as quaternary consumers—carnivores that eat tertiary consumers. Organisms at the very top of a food chain are called apex consumers. We can see examples of these levels in the diagram below. The green algae are primary producers that get eaten by mollusks—the primary consumers.
The mollusks then become lunch for the slimy sculpin fish, a secondary consumer, which is itself eaten by a larger fish, the Chinook salmon—a tertiary consumer.
In this illustration, the bottom trophic level is green algae, which is the primary producer.Feeding Relationships BBC19LS01
The primary consumers are mollusks, or snails. The secondary consumers are small fish called slimy sculpin. The tertiary and apex consumer is Chinook salmon. For instance, humans are omnivores that can eat both plants and animals.
Decomposers One other group of consumers deserves mention, although it does not always appear in drawings of food chains.
This group consists of decomposers, organisms that break down dead organic material and wastes. Decomposers are sometimes considered their own trophic level. As a group, they eat dead matter and waste products that come from organisms at various other trophic levels; for instance, they would happily consume decaying plant matter, the body of a half-eaten squirrel, or the remains of a deceased eagle.
In a sense, the decomposer level runs parallel to the standard hierarchy of primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. Fungi and bacteria are the key decomposers in many ecosystems; they use the chemical energy in dead matter and wastes to fuel their metabolic processes. Other decomposers are detritivores—detritus eaters or debris eaters.
These are usually multicellular animals such as earthworms, crabs, slugs, or vultures. They not only feed on dead organic matter but often fragment it as well, making it more available for bacterial or fungal decomposers.
When they break down dead material and wastes, they release nutrients that can be recycled and used as building blocks by primary producers. Inventions and innovations must be carefully assessed by individuals and society.
BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Food chains
Large scale wind patterns drive surface currents in the oceans and affects weather. Manufacturing is the process of turning materials into useful products.
Manufacturing is the process of turning raw materials into useful products. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mechanical advantage, using less force over a greater distance, allows the same work to be performed with less effort. Moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces.
People select, create, and use technology. Plants transform light energy into chemical energy, which then can be used by other living things. Safety is a preeminent concern for all technological development and use. Safety is one of the most important concerns for all technological development and use. Science and technology are interconnected.
Simple machines help accomplish a task with less effort by either changing the direction of motion or increasing the mechanical advantage.
Others are gradual, such as the lifting up of mountains or their wearing away by erosion. Some organisms are made up of only one cell. Specialized cells perform specialized functions in multicellular organisms.
- Food chains & food webs
- Relationships Between Organisms
- Interdependency between animal and plant species
Technological literacy is necessary for a productive workforce. Technological literacy is necessary for all citizens. Technological literacy is the ability to understand, use, assess, design, and create technology. Technological literacy requires lifelong learning. Technology and society impact each other. The abilities required in a technological world include diagnosing, troubleshooting, analyzing and maintaining systems.
The abilities required in a technological world include understanding, fixing, and maintaining systems. The atmosphere circulates in large scale patterns which steer weather systems due to heat from the sun.
The circulation of the ocean and atmosphere carries heat energy and has a strong influence on climate around the world. The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns. The gene is the basic unit of inheritance. The goal of technology is to meet human needs and wants.
The gravitational force is a universal force that depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are. The magnitude of the gravitational force is weight oz, lb, newtons. The rhythms of the Earth are caused by 3 celestial motions: The sun is the main source of energy for biological systems on the surface of the earth. There are defining structures of cells for both plants and animals. There are structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things.
There is a relationship between structure and function at all biological levels of organization. Thousands of layers of sedimentary rock confirm the long history of the changing surface of the earth and the changing life forms whose remains are found in successive layers. Transportation is the process of safely and efficiently moving people and products.
Two of the fundamental forces that exist in the universe are gravity and electromagnetism. Unbalanced forces acting on an object cause changes in its velocity. Understanding technological systems help us plan and control technological developments. While science is the study of the natural world, technology is the study of the human designed world. Describe how science and technology work together. Describe how technology impacts society. Describe the flow of energy from the sun, throughout the earth system, living and non-living, from the cellular scale to the global scale, and describe the transformations of that energy as it moves through the system.
Organisation in ecosystems
Describe the relationships among the parts of a system, the ways that they work together, the flow of matter or energy through the system, and the feedback and control mechanism present in the system. Design and develop the ability to create and send messages using technological devices. Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to build structures. Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to convert energy into power.
Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to create bio-related products and systems using technology. Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to create vehicles that transport people and products. Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to manufacture products.
Develop the abilities to use and maintain technological products and systems. Explain how technology has and can change the world. Explain the importance of carefully assessing technological inventions and innovations. Recognize the importance of using technological knowledge in society. Use appropriate technologies to make precise quantitative measurements and observations and to organize and analyze the data. Use design and problem solving skills to solve technological challenges.
Objectives In this lesson, students compare various types of relationships among organisms i. Organisms that eat other organisms for energy.