Sudan–United States relations - Wikipedia
United States to pre-position military equipment in Port Sudan. Sudan serves Saudi bilateral relations was quickly squelched by Sudan's Foreign Minister. We .. France. West Germany wu. Total. Economic. Military. Political relations France recognized South Sudan on 9 July in the development of French teaching in South Sudan and also has an. U.S.-SUDAN RELATIONS. The United States established diplomatic relations with Sudan in , following its independence from joint.
Yet from throughMadeleine Albright and her Assistant Secretary for Africa, Susan Rice, apparently preferred to trust their instincts that Sudan was America's enemy, and so refused to countenance its assistance against the deepest threat to US security since Carney noted that American inability to seize this opportunity had serious implications for US national interest.
A case in point was the US embassies bombings in Furthermore, Carney added, the US lost access to a treasure of material on Saudi-born bin Laden and his network. It appeared the US was in an awkward position with its Sudanese policy as it sought to include a repressive radical, militant Islamic Sudan classified as a "rogue state" and a "state sponsor of terrorism" in an anti-terrorist effort.
This was the first high-level contact between the two countries in years. Khartoum condemned the attacks and said it would cooperate on the war on terrorism.
Relations between the two appeared to have improved as the US encouraged the cooperation of Sudan in its fight against international terrorism. In fact, it has so far shared its files on suspected terrorists with the US and restricted their financial transactions.
For example, it has disclosed the following: Sudan's mukhabarat, its version of the CIA, has detained al-Qaeda suspects for interrogation by US agents; The Sudanese intelligence agency has seized and turned over to the FBI evidence recovered in raids on suspected terrorists' homes, including fake passports; Sudan has expelled extremists, putting them into the hands of Arab intelligence agencies working closely with the CIA; The regime is credited with foiling attacks against American targets by, among other things, detaining foreign militants moving through Sudan on their way to join forces with Iraqi insurgents.
As a result, the US has sent security and anti-terrorism experts to Sudan. Sudan's cooperation on the war on terrorism signaled a new turn in US-Sudanese relations, which have led to the softening of the prevailing tension between the two nations. This policy was further enhanced as the US supported the UN's lifting of the travel ban from the country.
Likewise, Sudan seized the opportunity to possibly be removed from the blacklist of sponsors of terrorism. Yet, this great achievement was marred by the ongoing Darfur conflict and growing instability in north east Sudan. The Darfur Crises 39 The Darfur conflict, which began in Februarycomplicated international attempts to end the country's instability and kept US-Sudan relations tense.
Since the fighting began, hundreds of thousands at leasthave been killed and more than 2. Darfurians blamed Khartoum for the region's underdevelopment and neglect. The government reacted to the rebellion ferociously, using Sudanese Air Force helicopters and planes to attack villages suspected of supporting the rebellion. The US declared that the Sudanese government's military forces and the government-backed militias, the Janjaweed, bore the responsibility for the Darfur atrocities, where a consistent and widespread pattern of violence had been directed against non-Arab individuals and villages.
This greatly angered the Sudanese who saw this as "moving the goalposts" with regard to removing Sudan from the state sponsors of terrorism list. Meanwhile, humanitarian conditions steadily declined and the security situation worsened. Currently, funds are urgently needed in Darfur to maintain the African Union AU force in the region mandated by the Security Council, to provide equipment and logistics, as well as sufficient humanitarian aid.
Despite the ceasefire, Janjaweed and rebel attacks continued. The AU endeavored to bring about African solutions to African problems the move resulted in failure and absolved the West from interfering but the international community failed to support the AU by providing adequate resources as the AU was near bankruptcy.
A UN plan to send a man peacekeeping force into the region in December was rejected by the Sudanese government. The idea was to replace the exhausted African Union force which is small, ill-equipped, and poorly funded. However, Khartoum continues to oppose international demands for a UN peacekeeping force in Darfur. Bashir fears that the deployment of a UN force will be likened as Western invasion and that UN forces might arrest government officials implicated in the Darfur crisis.
Khartoum insists on no blue helmeted peacekeeping mission in Darfur but would welcome technical support staff by the UN that would not engage in peacekeeping operations. Unfortunately, the ongoing opposition resulted in delays in the deployment of a UN force mandated to protect civilians under the UN charter. The DPA was the first step toward ending the violence in the region.
Consequentially, the fragile DPA fell apart, and failed to end the fighting but accelerated the violence. In addition, Kenneth H. Bacon, president of the advocacy group Refugees International informed President Bush: This had the effect of further alienating many Darfurians from Khartoum. Our lives have only gotten worse since it was signed. Bush also cautioned Minnawi that his force "must refrain from instigating violence.
US inability to garner a concerted multilateral effort with key European partners to move toward its position and apply pressure upon Khartoum greatly hampered America in achieving its foreign policy objectives. Along similar lines, the Bush administration sought a diplomatic resolution of the north-south war rather than containment and isolationism.
As the parties in the southern Sudanese conflict stumbled toward peace, US diplomacy and leadership kept the negotiations moving ahead and uninterrupted. Working with Norway, the United Kingdom, Kenya, and African actors, the US laid the ground work for ending the southern civil war and for putting in place the foundations for a just and lasting peace. Finally, it seems that American policy toward Sudan has been successful as both warring parties in the Sudanese conflict signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement on 9 Januaryending 21 years of Africa's longest-running, brutal civil war that claimed the lives of more than 2 million people and left millions of dislocated Sudanese as well as widespread devastation.
At first, this historical moment no doubt greatly contributed to promoting Sudan's better image before the global community. However, the atrocities and genocide in Darfur tarnished Khartoum's accomplishment. Besides, the CPA signed in is now showing signs of strain and the current equation for peace in Sudan is a disturbing one.
Earlier, the success of its constructive engagement policy toward Sudan with regards to the CPA no doubt amounted to the Bush administration's signature diplomatic achievement in Africa and for American diplomacy.
However, the ongoing conflict in Darfur still casts a long shadow, and US inability to achieve sustained action to quell the violence and end the genocide and crisis in Darfur has tainted the Bush administration's record in Sudan, reducing it to a chronology of failures.
The presence of African Union troops and the signing of the peace agreement between the Khartoum government and the late Garang's SPLM in Kenya have yet to have a positive effect in respect to Darfur. Regardless of its shortcomings, the US has been to no avail in the fore-front and the strongest proponent of ending atrocities committed in Darfur: Powell's conclusion that genocide and brutal human rights crimes have been committed in Darfur, its numerous attempts to secure actions and sanctions at the Security Council, and its proposal for the appointment of an independent UN Commission of Inquiry have all helped to galvanize attention and reduce the violence and calamities on the civilian population.
However, the US opposes a Security Council referral to the International Criminal Court ICC to investigate and prosecute those most responsible for the violation of international humanitarian law and human rights in Darfur.
The international community should be reminded of the immediate task of reconstructing southern Sudan and the urgency of supporting Sudan's CPA. Besides, the marginalized south will be a major development challenge for the US as well as for the global community.
However, since signing the CPA, Khartoum has yet to live up to its commitments under the north-south agreement. All that have been achieved has been bringing in Salva Kiir Mayardit as vice-president, as well as a handful of other southerners into the government.
A major component of the CPA centred on the sharing of revenue from Sudan's oil fields, with the south receiving half of the country's oil revenue. Kiir complained that "southerners have not been shown production or revenue figures, so they can't determine whether they've received their fair share or not. It is imperative the Bush administration appoint a special envoy to the region to monitor the implementation of the CPA, as well as achieve an acceptable Darfur Peace Agreement, as the current DPA has failed to improve anything for Darfur's vulnerable people.
Moreover, with the ongoing massive atrocities and genocide, US efforts continue to lack urgency and focus, and its leadership has failed to stop Khartoum's perpetual stalling and lack of effective action. US desires to ensure its cooperation with Sudan in the war on terrorism may have dampened and compromised its ability to pressure Khartoum.
As Eric Reeves, an independent Sudan analyst, noted there had been signs of a slight thaw toward Khartoum despite the State Department's official stance. The movement was concerned with such cooperative efforts because they believed that such a move would compromise the administration's ability to confront Khartoum on human rights abuses. And it will continue to do so in the foreseeable future, raising profound implications for US foreign policy. In his article on "Chasing Terrorists," James Wall notes that terrorism involves a battle against shadowy figures that don't fight with conventional methods.
As the administration combats terrorism in the millennium, Wall warns that, "Terrorism may not be defeated until we begin eliminating the factors that contribute to the anti-Americanism that generates so much anger. A major step in addressing the root causes of terrorism would be a more evenhanded approach to the Middle East.
Endnotes 1 Frances M. Deng and Stephen J.
Sudan–United States relations
Policy to End Sudan's War: Center for Strategic and International Studies, February State University of New York Press,p. James Rosenau argues that: The fact that interdependence issues cannot be handled unilaterally, that foreign policy officials must engage in a modicum of cooperation with counterparts abroad in order to ameliorate the situations on which such issues thrive, means that the rhetoric, as well as the substance, of control techniques must shift toward highlighting the common values that are at stake.
It is debatable whether relations between the United States, a superpower, and Sudan, a developing country, could be considered interdependent. Many authors, like JonesBaldwinLittleMilnerand McMillan have written on and examined the concept of interdependence. According to these authors, interdependence in simple terms means, "mutual dependence," and in international politics, it refers to "situations characterized by reciprocal effects among countries or among actors in different countries.
Little Brown,p. In this instance, the newly developed relationship between the US and Sudan were mutually beneficial and the necessity for interdependence and cooperation possibly paved the way for the change to more friendly relations.
However, it is noteworthy that the term interdependence is not only limited to situations of mutual benefit, but interdependent relations also involves cost. In this regard, Nye and Keohane contend, "Our perspective implies that interdependent relationships will always involve costs, since interdependence restricts autonomy; but it is impossible to specify a priori whether the benefits of a relationship exceed the costs.
This will depend on the values of the actors as well as on the nature of the relationship.
South Sudan MUN Country Profile | IMUNA
The Politics of State Survival Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,p. The Structure of International Security Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,pp. For Turabi, the implementation of strict Sharia law was a priority. He then infiltrated state instruments of power by establishing links with the army. His NIF devoted funds to sponsoring the careers of young and ambitious officers in the military.
Bashir received such financial support throughout his military career. The Fletcher School Fallpp. As such, at the beginning of his rule Bashir relied on the Islamists for support, thus forming an alliance with Turabi's fundamentalist National Islamic Front. In the quote, ". Remains in what might be called the foreground of the background," meant that Turabi was the power behind the throne.
Bin Laden told CNN inthat "one of his proudest achievements while in Sudan was the role his Afghan Arabs played in the killings of more than a dozen American soldiers during the famous Black Hawk Down incident.
However, the article refers to the peace process that took place in the s during the Clinton administration. Various meetings were held with the Israeli prime minister and Palestinian leader with the US mediating. The meetings focused on various issues, including the West Bank and Gaza, Jerusalem, and the future of the Palestinian people. In Junehowever, they were released to the custody of the Egyptian Government.
Ambassador to the Sudan was withdrawn in protest. Ambassador returned to Khartoum in November, relations with the Sudan remained static until earlywhen President Nimeiri mediated the release of 10 American hostages being held by Eritrean insurgents in rebel strongholds in northern Ethiopia.
Inthe U. In latethere was a reduction in staff at the U. Embassy in Khartoum because of the presence of a large contingent of Libyan terrorists. In Aprilrelations with Sudan deteriorated when the U. Embassy employee was shot on April 16, Immediately following this incident, all non-essential personnel and all dependents left for six months.
At this time, Sudan was the single largest recipient of U. Sudan was perceived to take sides with Iraq in the Gulf War as Sudan opposed intervention from countries out of the region. Sudan's links with international terrorist organizations represented a special matter of concern for the U. Fact Sheet November 5, More information about Sudan is available on the Sudan Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.
Sudan broke diplomatic relations with the United States in after the start of the Arab-Israeli War. Relations were reestablished in Embassy operations in Embassy was reopened in Several disputes between Sudan and South Sudan remain unresolved post-independence, including border demarcation and the status of the Abyei region. The ongoing conflict has severely affected or displaced more than 1.
France and South Sudan
Innon-Arabs in the western region of Darfur, who since have accused the government of systematic discrimination, marginalization, and oppression, rebelled against the government, protesting decades of political and economic neglect. The government responded with brutal force, including the use of Arab militias known as Janjaweed. In the ensuing conflict, more thanpeople were killed.
To date, the conflict in Darfur has affected 4. The United States characterized the government and affiliated militia attacks on civilians in as genocide, and Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir faces two International Criminal Court arrest warrants for his role in the Darfur conflict.